Roberto Martínez-Álvarez, Nuria Martínez-Moreno, M. Elena Kusak and Germán Rey-Portolés
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is difficult to treat. On the basis of results obtained by using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) to treat trigeminal neuralgia, the authors have used GKS to treat glossopharyngeal neuralgia in a series of patients since 2007. Their objectives with this study were to demonstrate the usefulness and safety of GKS for treating glossopharyngeal neuralgia and to describe a simple treatment method.
From 2007 through 2013, the authors treated glossopharyngeal neuralgia in 5 patients (4 women and 1 man), who ranged in age from 36 to 74 years. One patient had previously undergone treatment for trigeminal neuralgia at the Ruber International Hospital, Department of Functional Neurosurgery and Gamma Knife Radiosurgery. For all patients, before GKS, medical management did not control the pain. Three patients had previously undergone surgery (2 microvascular decompression and 1 rhizotomy) without improvement. For the GKS procedure, the nerve was localized by MRI and CT under stereotactic conditions and the target was located at the level of the glossopharyngeal meatus of the jugular foramen. For 1 patient, a maximum dose of 80 Gy was administrated with a 4-mm collimator, and for the others, the maximum dose was 90 Gy. The nerves located near the glossopharyngeal nerve received between 63 and 10 Gy, and the brainstem received less than 10 Gy. The mean follow-up time was 43 months (range 14–83 months).
All patients improved within 3–6 months after undergoing GKS. All 5 are without pain; 3 patients take no medication, but the other 2 patients continue to take medication. No neurological deficits after GKS were observed.
GKS is useful and safe for treating glossopharyngeal neuralgia, even for patients who have previously undergone surgery. GKS should be considered as the initial therapy for glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
Maria Luisa Gandía-González, M. Elena Kusak, Nuria Martínez Moreno, Jorge Gutiérrez Sárraga, Germán Rey and Roberto Martínez Álvarez
Jugulotympanic paragangliomas (JTPs) are rare benign tumors whose surgical treatment is usually associated with partial resection of the lesion, high morbidity, and even death. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been reported as a useful treatment option. The goal of this retrospective study is to analyze the role of GKRS in tumor volume control and clinical outcomes of these patients.
A total of 75 patients with JTPs were treated with GKRS at the authors' center from 1995 to 2012. The authors analyzed those treated during this period to allow for a minimal observation time of 2 years. The MR images and clinical reports of these patients were reviewed to assess clinical and volumetric outcomes of the tumors. The radiological and clinical assessments, along with a group of prognostic factors measured, were analyzed using descriptive methods. The time to volumetric and clinical progression was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were identified using log-rank statistics and multivariate Cox regression models.
The mean follow-up was 86.4 months. The authors observed volumetric tumor control in 94.8% of cases. In 67.2% of cases, tumor volume decreased by a mean of 40.1% from the original size. Of patients with previous tinnitus, 54% reported complete recovery. Improvement of other symptoms was observed in 34.5% of cases. Overall, clinical control was achieved in 91.4% of cases. Previous embolization and familial history of paraganglioma were selected as significant prognostic factors for volumetric response to GKRS treatment in the univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, no factors were significantly correlated with progression-free survival. No patient died of side effects related to GKRS treatment or tumor progression.
Gamma Knife radiosurgery is an effective, safe, and efficient therapeutic option for the treatment of these tumors as a first-line treatment or in conjunction with traditional surgery, endovascular treatment, or conventional fractionated radiotherapy.
Giorgio Spatola, Roberto Martinez-Alvarez, Nuria Martínez-Moreno, German Rey, Juan Linera, Marcos Rios-Lago, Marta Sanz, Jorge Gutiérrez, Pablo Vidal, Raphaëlle Richieri and Jean Régis
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition. The authors present their experience with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in the treatment of patients with OCD resistant to any medical therapy.
Patients with severe OCD resistant to all pharmacological and psychiatric treatments who were treated with anterior GKRS capsulotomy were retrospectively reviewed. These patients were submitted to a physical, neurological, and neuropsychological examination together with structural and functional MRI before and after GKRS treatment. Strict study inclusion criteria were applied. Radiosurgical capsulotomy was performed using two 4-mm isocenters targeted at the midputaminal point of the anterior limb of the capsule. A maximal dose of 120 Gy was prescribed for each side. Clinical global changes were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, EQ-5D, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). OCD symptoms were determined by the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).
Ten patients with medically refractory OCD (5 women and 5 men) treated between 2006 and 2015 were included in this study. Median age at diagnosis was 22 years, median duration of illness at the time of radiosurgery was 14.5 years, and median age at treatment was 38.8 years. Before GKRS, the median Y-BOCS score was 34.5 with a median obsession score of 18 and compulsion score of 17. Seven (70%) of 10 patients achieved a full response at their last follow-up, 2 patients were nonresponders, and 1 patient was a partial responder. Evaluation of the Y-BOCS, BDI, STAI-Trait, STAI-State, GAF, and EQ-5D showed statistically significant improvement at the last follow-up after GKRS. Neurological examinations were normal in all patients at each visit. At last follow-up, none of the patients had experienced any significant adverse neuropsychological effects or personality changes.
GKRS anterior capsulotomy is effective and well tolerated with a maximal dose of 120 Gy. It reduces both obsessions and compulsions, improves quality of life, and diminishes depression and anxiety.