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Mazda K. Turel, Georgios Tsermoulas, Lior Gonen, George Klironomos, Joao Paulo Almeida, Gelareh Zadeh and Fred Gentili

OBJECTIVE

The treatment of recurrent and residual craniopharyngiomas is challenging. In this study the authors describe their experience with these tumors and make recommendations on their management.

METHODS

The authors performed an observational study of adult patients (≥ 18 years) with recurrent or residual craniopharyngiomas that were managed at their tertiary center. Retrospective data were collected on demographics and clinical, imaging, and treatment characteristics from patients who had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Descriptive statistics were used and the data were analyzed.

RESULTS

There were 42 patients (27 male, 15 female) with a mean age of 46.3 ± 14.3 years. The average tumor size was 3.1 ± 1.1 cm. The average time to first recurrence was 3.6 ± 5.5 years (range 0.2–27 years). One in 5 patients (8/42) with residual/recurrent tumors did not require any active treatment. Of the 34 patients who underwent repeat treatment, 12 (35.3%) had surgery only (transcranial, endoscopic, or both), 9 (26.5%) underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy (RT), and 13 (38.2%) received RT alone. Eighty-six percent (18/21) had a gross-total (n = 4) or near-total (n = 14) resection of the recurrent/residual tumors and had good local control at last follow-up. One of 5 patients (7/34) who underwent repeat treatment had further treatment for a second recurrence. The total duration of follow-up was 8.6 ± 7.1 years. The average Karnofsky Performance Scale score at last follow-up was 80 (range 40–90). There was 1 death.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on this experience and in the absence of guidelines, the authors recommend an individualized approach for the treatment of symptomatic or growing tumors. This study has shown that 1 in 5 patients does not require repeat treatment of their recurrent/residual disease and can be managed with a “scan and watch” approach. On the other hand, 1 in 5 patients who had repeat treatment for their recurrence in the form of surgery and/or radiation will require further additional treatment. More studies are needed to best characterize these patients and predict the natural history of this disease and response to treatment.

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Alireza Mansouri, Soroush Larjani, George Klironomos, Normand Laperriere, Michael Cusimano, Fred Gentili, Michael Schwartz and Gelareh Zadeh

OBJECT

In this paper, the authors’ aim was to determine short-term volumetric and diametric tumor growth and identify clinical, radiological, and dosimetric predictors of adverse radiation events (AREs) following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for intracranial WHO Grade I meningiomas.

METHODS

This is a retrospective review of all WHO Grade I meningiomas that were treated with SRS (primary or adjuvant) between December 2005 and June 2012 at the University Health Network. Seventy-five patients had at least 24 months of both clinical and radiological follow-up and were, therefore, included in this study. Tumor growth was defined as any volumetric or diametric change greater than 10% per year. Any variation less than +10% was considered growth stability. Volumetric measurements were made using T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced 3-T MRI scans and ITK-SNAP software. Tumor growth rates were calculated using the specific growth rate (SGR). Univariate statistics were used to identify predictors of post-SRS AREs. All statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS.

RESULTS

Women accounted for 69.3% of patients, and the mean treatment age was 58.6 years. Median follow-up was 36.2 months. Twenty-one (28%) patients had undergone prior resection. Two (3%) patients required salvage surgical intervention following SRS. The majority of the lesions (56%) were skull base tumors. Median tumor volume and diameter were 5.2 cm3 and 27.5 mm, respectively. The absence of tumor growth was observed in 39 cases (52%) based on the volumetric measurements, while the absence of tumor growth was observed in 69 cases (92%) based on the diametric measurements. Twenty-six patients (34.6%) experienced new-onset AREs, including headache (17.3%), cranial neuropathy (10.6%), speech impairment (2.7%), tremors (2.7%), and ataxia (1.3%). Fourteen patients (18.7%) experienced new-onset edema, and 4 of these patients were symptomatic. A lower conformity index (1.24 vs 1.4) was significantly associated with the development of edema (p < 0.001 power > 0.8). Patients with meningiomas that had growth rates of more than 10% per year were more likely to experience long-term headaches after SRS (p = 0.022).

CONCLUSIONS

Volume-based reporting of SRS outcomes for meningiomas may be a more accurate method given the complex morphology of some lesions. The conformity index was identified as a predictor of edema following radiosurgery.

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Alireza Mansouri, George Klironomos, Shervin Taslimi, Alex Kilian, Fred Gentili, Osaama H. Khan, Kenneth Aldape and Gelareh Zadeh

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to identify the natural history and clinical predictors of postoperative recurrence of skull base and non–skull base meningiomas.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective hospital-based study of all patients with meningioma referred to their institution from September 1993 to January 2014. The cohort constituted both patients with a first-time presentation and those with evidence of recurrence. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for analysis of recurrence and differences were assessed using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify potential predictors of recurrence.

RESULTS

Overall, 398 intracranial meningiomas were reviewed, including 269 (68%) non–skull base and 129 (32%) skull base meningiomas (median follow-up 30.2 months, interquartile range [IQR] 8.5–76 months). The 10-year recurrence-free survival rates for patients with gross-total resection (GTR) and subtotal resection (STR) were 90% and 43%, respectively. Skull base tumors were associated with a lower proliferation index (0.041 vs 0.062, p = 0.001), higher likelihood of WHO Grade I (85.3% vs 69.1%, p = 0.003), and younger patient age (55.2 vs 58.3 years, p = 0.01). Meningiomas in all locations demonstrated an average recurrence rate of 30% at 100 months of follow-up. Subsequently, the recurrence of skull base meningiomas plateaued whereas non–skull base lesions had an 80% recurrence rate at 230 months follow-up (p = 0.02). On univariate analysis, a prior history of recurrence (p < 0.001), initial WHO grade following resection (p < 0.001), and the inability to obtain GTR (p < 0.001) were predictors of future recurrence. On multivariate analysis a prior history of recurrence (p = 0.02) and an STR (p < 0.01) were independent predictors of a recurrence. Assessing only patients with primary presentations, STR and WHO Grades II and III were independent predictors of recurrence (p < 0.001 for both).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with skull base meningiomas present at a younger age and have less aggressive lesions overall. Extent of resection is a key predictor of recurrence and long-term follow-up of meningiomas is necessary, especially for non–skull base tumors. In skull base meningiomas, recurrence risk plateaus approximately 100 months after surgery, suggesting that for this specific cohort, follow-up after 100 months can be less frequent.