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Neuroendoscopy

George I. Jallo

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Correlation of a preoperative grading scale with progressive spinal deformity following surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors in children

Clinical article

Matthew J. McGirt, Shlomi Constantini, and George I. Jallo

Object

Postoperative progressive spinal deformity often complicates functional outcome after resection of pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs). The authors propose a preoperative grading scale that correlates with the postoperative development of progressive spinal deformity requiring subsequent fusion.

Methods

The data obtained in 164 patients who underwent resection of an IMSCT at a single institution were retrospectively collected and analyzed to determine the development of progressive spinal deformity requiring fusion. A grading scale (range of scores I–V) was created based on the presence or absence of 4 preoperative variables: preoperative scoliosis, involvement of the thorocolumbar junction, age < 13 years, and number of surgeries for an IMSCT. The grading scale was then retrospectively applied to this series of 164 children to assess the correlation of variables with subsequent spinal deformity.

Results

Nine patients presented with Grade I status, 41 patients with Grade II, 58 patients with Grade III, 44 patients with Grade IV, and 12 patients with Grade V. Overall, 44 patients (27%) developed progressive spinal deformity requiring fusion at a mean follow-up of 5 years after surgery. A higher preoperative grade was associated with an increasing need for subsequent fusion for progressive spinal deformity (Grade I [0%], Grade II [5%], Grade III [26%], Grade IV [40%], and Grade V status [75%]).

Conclusions

Application of this grading scheme to a series of resected pediatric IMSCTs has demonstrated its correlation with the incidence of postoperative progressive spinal deformity requiring fusion. The application of a standardized grading scheme will assist in the process of surgical decision making and postoperative evaluation.

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Complications and subsequent removal of retained shunt hardware after endoscopic third ventriculostomy: case series

Report of 3 cases

Jonathan Pindrik, George I. Jallo, and Edward S. Ahn

This case series highlights multiple complications and subsequent removal of retained shunt hardware in pediatric patients after successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). Removal or retention of existing shunt hardware following ETV represents an important dilemma. Prior studies have reported infections and organ perforation related to nonfunctioning shunts but none in the context of successful ETV. Data obtained in 3 children with hydrocephalus treated at the authors' institution were retrospectively reviewed after the patients experienced complications due to retained shunt hardware following ETV. Etiologies of hydrocephalus included tectal glioma and intraventricular hemorrhage. All 3 patients had a history of multiple shunt revisions and underwent urgent ETV in the setting of a shunt malfunction. In each case, the entire shunt system was left in situ, but it became the source of subsequent complications. Two of the 3 patients presented with the shunt infected by gram-negative bacilli 10 days and 4.5 months postoperatively, respectively. The remaining patient experienced wound dehiscence over the shunt valve 4.5 months after ETV. In all patients, the complications were managed successfully by removing the shunt hardware. None of the patients required repeat shunt insertion from the time of removal throughout the follow-up period (mean 24 months, range 9–36 months). During the study period, a total of 6 patients with indwelling shunt hardware underwent ETV with the expectation of being shunt independent. Among these 6 patients, 3 experienced no complications from the retained hardware whereas 3 patients (50%) ultimately experienced adverse consequences related to retained hardware. This case series illustrates complications involving retained shunt hardware after successful ETV. These examples support consideration of shunt removal at the time of ETV in the appropriate context.

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Management of intracerebral hemorrhages of unknown cause

Roberto C. Heros

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Eyebrow surgery

George I. Jallo

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Endoscopic third ventriculostomy

George I. Jallo, Karl F. Kothbauer, and I. Rick Abbott

The traditional treatment for all forms of hydrocephalus has been the implantation of ventricular shunt systems; however, these systems have inherent tendencies toward complications such as malfunction and infection. A significant advance in the treatment of hydrocephalus has been the evolution of endoscopy. The recent technological advances in this field have led to a renewed interest in endoscopic third ventriculostomy as the treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. Although several different endoscopes are available, the authors favor a rigid one to perform a blunt fenestration of the third ventricle floor. This description of the technique stresses the nuances for successful completion of this procedure.

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Surgical management of the Chiari malformation Type I—the way forward

Joseph H. Piatt Jr.

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Recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage from a cerebral arteriovenous malformation undetected by repeated noninvasive neuroimaging in a 4-year-old boy

Case report

Lori C. Jordan, George I. Jallo, and Philippe Gailloud

✓ The authors report the case of a 4-year-old boy with a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) related to an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) that was not found with good-quality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography. Both modalities were used serially in the acute phase and at 2 and 7 months of follow-up. Digital subtraction angiography identified the peripheral AVM when the patient experienced rehemorrhaging 1 year after his initial presentation. This case illustrates the need for a complete diagnostic evaluation including conventional angiography in cases of idiopathic ICH in children.

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Meningioangiomatosis without neurofibromatosis: a clinical analysis

George I. Jallo, Karl Kothbauer, Vikas Mehta, Rick Abbott, and Fred Epstein

Object

Meningioangiomatosis is an uncommon clinical entity. This lesion has been reported at time of autopsy in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) and in case reports of patients without NF Type 2 (NF2). The authors report a series of six patients with meningioangiomatosis who do not have NF2 and describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis of disease, and treatment. They also review the literature concerning this entity.

Methods

Six patients with meningioangiomatosis were treated at the authors' institutions from 1994 to 2001. The mean age of the patients was 10.7 years (range 5–14 years). All of the children presented with a seizure disorder. Surgery was performed in all children, and a gross-total resection was accomplished.

All patients exhibited clinical improvement. At last follow up (mean 6.3 years) all patients are free of seizures and are not taking anticonvulsant medications. No signs of recurrence have been noted on imaging studies.

Conclusions

The authors advocate a gross-total resection of meningioangiomatosis for the treatment of seizure disorder in this population.

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A superciliary approach for anterior cranial fossa lesions in children

Technical note

George I. Jallo, Ian Suk, and László Bognár

✓Many subfrontal and orbitofrontal craniotomy techniques have been proposed and developed for anterior cranial fossa lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical experience with the frontolateral keyhole craniotomy through a superciliary skin incision in children.

The keyhole craniotomy is a modification of the traditional pterional approach. This modified approach, a craniotomy with a 2.5 × 3—cm bone opening just above the eyebrow through a superciliary incision, has been previously described in adults for many lesions situated in the anterior cranial fossa, including tumors and aneurysms. The authors review their experience in using this approach in 27 children for a variety of intracranial lesions.

This approach was used for 28 procedures in children ranging in age from 1 to 16 years (mean age 10 years). The lesions included arachnoid cysts, cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, and tumors; no vascular lesions were treated.

The authors have found this craniotomy to be a safe and simple approach for treating anterior cranial fossa and suprasellar lesions in children.