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Editorial. The evolution of adjuvant surgical tools in aiding maximal safe anatomical resection

Gavin W. Britz

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Obituary. Robert G. Grossman, MD, 1933–2021

Gavin W. Britz and David S. Baskin

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Cerebral vascularization

David W. Newell, Gavin W. Britz, and Jonathan Brisman

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Hydrocephalus secondary to diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus

Case report and review of the literature

Gavin W. Britz, D. Kyle Kim, and John D. Loeser

✓ Diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus, which is distinct from bilateral choroid plexus papillomas, is extremely rare and is often associated with hydrocephalus due to the overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The authors describe an infant with hydrocephalus, diagnosed by computerized tomography scanning, who developed ascites following placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and, subsequently, demonstrated excessive CSF production when the shunt was externalized. The patient was later successfully treated by placement of a ventriculoatrial shunt. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus as the cause of the patient's hydrocephalus. The literature on diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus is reviewed.

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Editorial. The delivery of stroke intervention in the community: is telerobotic endovascular surgery the solution?

Jeffrey T. Nelson and Nicholas C. Bambakidis

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Transulcal parafascicular minimally invasive approach to deep and subcortical cavernomas: technical note

Robert A. Scranton, Steve H. Fung, and Gavin W. Britz

Cavernomas comprise 8%–15% of intracranial vascular lesions, usually supratentorial in location and superficial. Cavernomas in the thalamus or subcortical white matter represent a unique challenge for surgeons in trying to identify and then use a safe corridor to access and resect the pathology. Previous authors have described specific open microsurgical corridors based on pathology location, often with technical difficulty and morbidity. This series presents 2 cavernomas that were resected using a minimally invasive approach that is less technically demanding and has a good safety profile. The authors report 2 cases of cavernoma: one in the thalamus and brainstem with multiple hemorrhages and the other in eloquent subcortical white matter. These lesions were resected through a transulcal parafascicular approach with a port-based minimally invasive technique. In this series there was complete resection with no neurological complications. The transulcal parafascicular minimally invasive approach relies on image interpretation and trajectory planning, intraoperative navigation, cortical cannulation and subcortical space access, high-quality optics, and resection as key elements to minimize exposure and retraction and maximize tissue preservation. The authors applied this technique to 2 patients with cavernomas in eloquent locations with excellent outcomes.

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Unruptured aneurysms

H. Richard Winn and Gavin W. Britz

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Long-term outcome of superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass for patients with moyamoya disease in the US

Ali H. Mesiwala, Gill Sviri, Nasrin Fatemi, Gavin W. Britz, and David W. Newell


The authors report the long-term results of a series of direct superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery (STA–MCA) bypass procedures in patients with moyamoya disease from the western US.


All patients with moyamoya disease treated at the University of Washington from 1990 through 2004 (39 patients) were included in this study. Patients underwent pre- and postoperative evaluation of cerebral perfusion dynamics. Surgical revascularization procedures were performed in all patients with impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) findings.


The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 34 years (range 10–55 years). All 39 patients had impaired CBF and/or vasomotor reserve and underwent revascularization procedures: 26 patients underwent bilateral operations, 13 unilateral (65 total procedures). An STA–MCA bypass was technically possible in 56 procedures (86.2%); saphenous vein interposition grafts were required in 3 procedures (4.6%); encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis was performed in 6 procedures (9.2%). Three patients died due to postoperative complications, yielding a procedure-related mortality rate of 4.61%, and 8 experienced non–life threatening complications (for a procedure-related rate of 12.3%). Long-term follow-up appeared to indicate a reduction in further ischemic events in surviving patients compared with the natural history. Cerebral perfusion dynamics improved postoperatively in all 36 surviving patients.


Moyamoya disease may differ in the US and Asia, and STA–MCA bypass procedures may prevent future ischemic events in patients with this condition.

Open access

Leptomeningeal metastasis from neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: illustrative case

John D. Patterson, Andrew M. Farach, Monisha Singh, Gavin W. Britz, and Robert C. Rostomily


Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is a rare feature of metastasis that is characterized by thickening and increased contrast enhancement throughout the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) can occur as spread from primary CNS tumors or as a manifestation of metastasis to the CNS from primary tumor sites outside the CNS. Leptomeningeal disease is, however, rare in cervical cancer, in which metastasis occurs typically from local invasion.


The authors discuss the case of CNS metastasis with LMD from the rare neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix (NECC). Cervical cancer infrequently metastasizes to the CNS, but NECC is an aggressive variant with greater metastatic potential. Many of these patients will have previously received pelvic radiation, limiting their candidacy for craniospinal radiation for LMD treatment due to field overlap. This illustrative case documents the first known case of NECC CNS metastasis accompanied by LMD treated with intrathecal chemotherapy.


Reported is the first known case of NECC with CNS metastasis accompanied by LMD. The authors highlight the potentially critical role of intrathecal chemotherapy, in addition to radiotherapy, in treating leptomeningeal metastasis from cervical cancer.

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Prevalence of asymptomatic incidental aneurysms: review of 4568 arteriograms

H. Richard Winn, John A. Jane, James Taylor, Donald Kaiser, and Gavin W. Britz

Object. The prevalence of unruptured cerebral aneurysms is unknown, but is estimated to be as high as 5%. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic incidental aneurysms.

Methods. The authors studied all cerebral arteriography reports produced at a single institution, the University of Virginia, between April 1969 and January 1980. A review of 3684 arteriograms demonstrated 24 cases of asymptomatic aneurysms, yielding a prevalence rate of 0.65%. The majority (67%) of the 24 patients harboring unruptured aneurysms were women. More than 90% of the unruptured aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and in locations similar to those found in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Nearly 80% of the aneurysms were smaller than 1 cm in their greatest diameter. The frequency of asymmetrical unruptured aneurysms (0.6–1.5%) was constant throughout all relevant age ranges (35–84 years).

Conclusions. While keeping in mind appropriate caveats in extrapolating from these data, the prevalence rate of asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms found in the present study allows an estimation of the yearly rate of rupture of these lesions. The authors suggest that this yearly rate of rupture falls within the range of 1 to 2%.