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Gang Wu, Xuhui Bao, Guohua Xi, Richard F. Keep, B. Gregory Thompson and Ya Hua

Object

Hypertension is the main cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs), but the effects of hypertension on ICH-induced brain injury have not been well studied. In this study, the authors examined ICH-induced brain injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

Methods

This 2-part study was performed in 12-week-old male SHRs and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. First, the rats received an intracaudate injection of 0.3 U collagenase, and hematoma sizes were determined at 24 hours. Second, rats were injected with 100 μl autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. Brain edema, neuronal death, ferritin expression, microglia activation, and neurological deficits were examined.

Results

Hematoma sizes were the same in SHR and WKY rats 24 hours after collagenase injection. The SHRs had greater neuronal death and neurological deficits after blood injection. Intracerebral hemorrhage also resulted in higher brain ferritin levels and stronger activation of microglia in SHRs. However, perihematomal brain edema was the same in the SHRs and WKY rats.

Conclusions

Moderate chronic hypertension resulted in more severe ICH-induced neuronal death and neurological deficits, but did not exaggerate hematoma enlargement and perihematomal brain edema in the rat ICH models.

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Yizhi Liu, Jiaoxue Qiu, Zhong Wang, Wanchun You, Lingyun Wu, Chengyuan Ji and Gang Chen

OBJECT

Oxidative stress and the inflammatory response are thought to promote brain damage in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previous reports have shown that dimethylfumarate (DMF) can activate the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1–nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2–antioxidant-responsive element (Keap1-Nrf2-ARE) system in vivo and in vitro, which leads to the downregulation of oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of DMF on SAH-induced brain injury in rats.

METHODS

Rats were subjected to SAH by the injection of 300 μl of autologous blood into the chiasmatic cistern. Rats in a DMF-treated group were given 15 mg/kg DMF twice daily by oral gavage for 2 days after the onset of SAH. Cortical apoptosis, neural necrosis, brain edema, blood-brain barrier impairment, learning deficits, and changes in the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway were assessed.

RESULTS

Administration of DMF significantly ameliorated the early brain injury and learning deficits induced by SAH in this animal model. Treatment with DMF markedly upregulated the expressions of agents related to Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling after SAH. The inflammatory response and oxidative stress were downregulated by DMF therapy.

CONCLUSIONS

DMF administration resulted in abatement of the development of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunction in this prechiasmatic cistern SAH model. This result was probably mediated by the effect of DMF on the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE system.

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Gang Wu, Allan Belzberg, Jessica Nance, Sergio Gutierrez-Hernandez, Eva K. Ritzl and Matthias Ringkamp

OBJECTIVE

Intraoperative nerve action potential (NAP) recording is a useful tool for surgeons to guide decisions on surgical approaches during nerve repair surgeries. However, current methods remain technically challenging. In particular, stimulus artifacts that contaminate or mask the NAP and therefore impair the interpretation of the recording are a common problem. The authors’ goal was to improve intraoperative NAP recording techniques by revisiting the methods in an experimental setting.

METHODS

First, NAPs were recorded from surgically exposed peripheral nerves in monkeys. For the authors to test their assumptions about observed artifacts, they then employed a simple model system. Finally, they applied their insights to clinical cases in the operating room.

RESULTS

In monkey peripheral nerve recordings, large stimulus artifacts obscured NAPs every time the nerve segment (length 3–5 cm) was lifted up from the surrounding tissue, and NAPs could not be recorded. Artifacts were suppressed, and NAPs emerged when “bridge grounding” was applied, and this allowed the NAPs to be recorded easily and reliably. Tests in a model system suggested that exaggerated stimulus artifacts and unmasking of NAPs by bridge grounding are related to a loop effect that is created by lifting the nerve. Consequently, clean NAPs were acquired in “nonlifting” recordings from monkey peripheral nerves. In clinical cases, bridge grounding efficiently unmasked intraoperative NAP recordings, validating the authors’ principal concept in the clinical setting and allowing effective neurophysiological testing in the operating room.

CONCLUSIONS

Technical challenges of intraoperative NAP recording are embedded in the current methods that recommend lifting the nerve from the tissue bed, thereby exaggerating stimulus artifacts by a loop effect. Better results can be achieved by performing nonlifting nerve recording or by applying bridge grounding. The authors not only tested their findings in an animal model but also applied them successfully in clinical practice.

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Yanlu Zhang, Michael Chopp, Yi Zhang, Zheng Gang Zhang, Mei Lu, Talan Zhang, Kuan-Han H. Wu, Li Zhang, Asim Mahmood and Ye Xiong

OBJECTIVE

The authors previously demonstrated that Cerebrolysin is effective for treatment of mild closed head injury (CHI) when administered 4 hours after injury. The aim of this study was to determine Cerebrolysin’s effects on functional and histological outcomes in rats subjected to moderate CHI.

METHODS

In this randomized, blinded, and vehicle-controlled preclinical trial, male adult Wistar rats subjected to moderate CHI received either Cerebrolysin treatment at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg (n = 13) or vehicle (saline, n = 13) intraperitoneally administered daily for 10 days, starting at 4 hours after injury. Animals were subjected to cognitive and sensorimotor functional tests at multiple time points, and they were killed 3 months after injury. The brains were processed for analyses of neuronal cell loss, amyloid precursor protein, axonal damage, and neurogenesis.

RESULTS

Compared with rats treated with vehicle (saline), rats treated with Cerebrolysin had significantly increased numbers of neuroblasts and newborn mature neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) and attenuated amyloid precursor protein accumulation and axonal damage in various brain regions, as well as decreased neuronal loss in the DG and cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) region of the hippocampus (p < 0.05). Global testing using generalized estimating equations showed a significant beneficial effect of Cerebrolysin treatment on sensorimotor functional outcomes from 1 day to 3 months after injury compared to that of saline treatment (p < 0.05). Compared with vehicle-treated rats, Cerebrolysin-treated rats showed significantly and robustly improved long-term (up to 3 months) cognitive functional recovery, as measured by social interaction, Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and odor recognition tests. In the Cerebrolysin-treated rats there were significant correlations between multiple histological outcomes and functional recovery evident 3 months after moderate CHI, as indicated by Pearson partial correlation analyses.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ findings demonstrate that Cerebrolysin treatment significantly improves long-term functional and histological outcomes in rats with moderate CHI, with functional outcomes significantly correlated with histological indices of neuroplasticity and neuroprotection. These data indicate that Cerebrolysin may be useful for the treatment of moderate CHI.

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Da Li, Zhen Wu, Cong Ren, Shu-Yu Hao, Liang Wang, Xin-Ru Xiao, Jie Tang, Yong-Gang Wang, Guo-Lu Meng, Li-Wei Zhang and Jun-Ting Zhang

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to evaluate neurological function and progression/recurrence (P/R) outcome of foramen magnum meningioma (FMM) based on a modified classification.

METHODS

This study included 185 consecutive patients harboring FMMs (mean age 49.4 years; 124 females). The authors classified the FMMs into 4 types according to the previous classification of Bruneau and George as follows: Type A (n = 49, 26.5%), the dural attachment of the lesion grows below the vertebral artery (VA); Type B (n = 39, 21.1%), the dural attachment of the lesion grows above the VA; Type C1 (n = 84, 45.4%), the VA courses across the lesion with or without VA encasement or large lesions grow both above and below the bilateral VA; and Type C2 (n = 13, 7.0%), Type C1 plus partial/total encasement of the VA and extradural growth.

RESULTS

The median preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score was 80. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 154 patients (83.2%). Lower cranial nerve morbidity was lowest in Type A lesions (16.3%). Type C2 lesions were inherently larger (p = 0.001), had a greater percentage of ventrolateral location (p = 0.009) and VA encasement (p < 0.001), lower GTR rate (p < 0.001), longer surgical duration (p = 0.015), higher morbidity (38.5%), higher P/R rate (30.8%, p = 0.009), and poorer recent KPS score compared with other types. After a mean follow-up duration of 110.3 months, the most recent follow-up data were obtained in 163 patients (88.1%). P/R was observed in 13 patients (7.2%). The median follow-up KPS score was 90. Compared with preoperative status, recent neurological status was improved in 91 (49.2%), stabilized in 76 (41.1%), and worsened in 18 (9.7%) patients. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model demonstrated Type C2 (HR 3.94, 95% CI 1.04–15.0, p = 0.044), nontotal resection (HR 6.30, 95% CI 1.91–20.8, p = 0.003), and pathological mitosis (HR 7.11, 95% CI 1.96–25.8, p = 0.003) as independent adverse predictors for tumor P/R. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified nontotal resection (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.16–14.2, p = 0.029) and pathological mitosis (OR 6.29, 95% CI 1.47–27.0, p = 0.013) as independent risks for poor outcome (KPS score < 80).

CONCLUSIONS

The modified classification helped to predict surgical outcome and P/R in addition to the position of the lower cranial nerves. Preoperative imaging studies and neurological function should be reviewed carefully to establish an individualized management strategy to improve long-term outcome.