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Jason A. Brodkey, Jon H. Robertson, John J. Shea III and Gale Gardner

✓ Cholesterol granulomas of the head are relatively rare. Isolated lesions of the cerebellopontine angle are even more uncommon. In this report, 17 cases of petrous apex cholesterol granulomas are presented and management is discussed.

Symptoms at presentation included dizziness (14 patients), pressure (nine patients), tinnitus (eight patients), hearing loss (eight patients), otalgia (six patients), headache (six patients), nausea (three patients), drainage from ear (two patients), facial pain (two patients), seizure (two patients), lightheadedness (one patient), hemifacial spasm (one patient), and facial numbness (one patient). Six cases were managed without surgery and 11 patients underwent operative procedures. The approaches used included the infralabyrinthine (eight patients), transcanal—infracochlear (two patients), and translabyrinthine (one patient). The mean follow-up period for all cases was 29.5 months. Of those patients managed without surgery, symptoms improved in all except one, whose tinnitus was slightly worse. Of surgically treated patients, symptoms improved or remained the same except in one with worsened dizziness. There were nine patients with hearing present presurgery and seven whose hearing was preserved postsurgery. The authors present a case that was managed at another center where an attempt at surgical resection through a subtemporal middle fossa approach was unsuccessful. This lesion was successfully treated using an infralabyrinthine approach with drainage into the mastoid cavity.

Cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex can be managed without surgery when symptoms are stable or improve. Otherwise, a transmastoid extradural approach with simple drainage into the mastoid sinus or middle ear produces symptomatic improvement with low morbidity. Resection of petrous apex cholesterol granulomas is not necessary.

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Cedric D. Shorter, David E. Connor Jr., Jai Deep Thakur, Gale Gardner, Anil Nanda and Bharat Guthikonda

Object

Methods for repairing middle fossa CSF (MFCSF) leaks have varied and yielded mixed results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and durability of the authors' repair technique using a novel combination of 3 synthetic materials.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective case review of patients treated for CSF leaks between January 2009 and September 2011. Eight patients were found to have undergone middle fossa craniotomies for CSF leaks. Inclusion criteria for the study included age greater than 18 years, neuroimaging-documented temporal bone defect, and symptoms consistent with CSF leaks or gross CSF otorrhea. Seven patients, 3 men and 4 women, met the inclusion criteria, and their charts were reviewed. Hydroxyapatite cement, collagen-based dural substitute matrix, and polyethylene glycol hydrogel sealant were used in all patients for the repair.

Results

In all patients the MFCSF leaks were successfully repaired. Initial presenting symptoms included CSF otorrhea in 4 patients (57.1%), hearing loss in 3 (42.9%), and CSF rhinorrhea in 1 (14.3%). The mean follow-up duration was 12 months (range 5–33 months). In 1 patient an epidural hematoma developed at the operative site on postoperative Day 2, and in another patient a superficial wound dehiscence occurred on postoperative Day 48. During the follow-up period, the authors found no evidence of wound infections, neurovascular damage, or CSF leakage requiring reoperation.

Conclusions

The middle fossa approach involving a combination of hydroxyapatite cement, collagen-based dural substitute matrix, and polyethylene glycol hydrogel sealant is a safe, effective method for repairing MFCSF leaks. The combination of synthetic materials provides an alternative to existing materials for skull base surgeons.

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Jai Deep Thakur, Imad Saeed Khan, Cedric D. Shorter, Ashish Sonig, Gale L. Gardner, Bharat Guthikonda and Anil Nanda

Object

The goal of this study was to perform a systematic quantitative comparison of the surgical outcomes between cystic vestibular schwannomas (CVSs) and solid vestibular schwannomas (SVSs).

Methods

A review of English-language literature published between 1990 and 2011 was performed using various search engines including PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane database. Only studies that reported surgical results of CVSs in comparison with SVSs were included in the analysis. The primary end point of this study was surgical outcomes, defined by the following: 1) facial nerve outcomes at latest follow-up; 2) mortality rates; or 3) non–facial nerve complication index. Secondary end points included extent of resection and brainstem adherence.

Results

Nine studies comprising 428 CVSs and 1287 SVSs were included in the study. The mean age of patients undergoing surgery was 48.3 ± 6.75 and 47.1 ± 9 years for CVSs and SVSs, respectively (p = 0.8). The mean tumor diameter for CVSs was 3.9 ± 0.84 cm and that for SVSs was 3.7 ± 1.2 cm (p = 0.7). There was no significant difference in the extent of resection among CVSs and SVSs (81.2% vs 80.7%, p = 0.87) Facial nerve outcomes were significantly better in the cohort of patients with SVSs than in those with CVSs (52.1% vs 39%, p = 0.0001). The perioperative mortality rates for CVSs and SVSs were not significantly different (3% and 3.8%, respectively; p = 0.6). No significant difference was noted between the cumulative non–facial nerve complication rate (including mortality) among patients with CVSs and SVSs (24.5% and 25.6%, respectively; p = 0.75)

Conclusions

Facial nerve outcomes are worse in patients undergoing resection for CVSs than in patients undergoing resection for SVSs. There were no significant differences in the extent of resection or postoperative morbidity and mortality rates between the cohorts of patients with vestibular schwannomas.

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Jai Deep Thakur, Anirban Deep Banerjee, Imad Saeed Khan, Ashish Sonig, Cedric D. Shorter, Gale L. Gardner, Anil Nanda and Bharat Guthikonda

Advances in neuroimaging have increased the detection rate of small vestibular schwannomas (VSs, maximum diameter < 25 mm). Current management modalities include observation with serial imaging, stereotactic radiosurgery, and microsurgical resection. Selecting one approach over another invites speculation, and no standard management consensus has been established. Moreover, there is a distinct clinical heterogeneity among patients harboring small VSs, making standardization of management difficult. The aim of this article is to guide treating physicians toward the most plausible therapeutic option based on etiopathogenesis and the highest level of existing evidence specific to the different cohorts of hypothetical case scenarios.

Hypothetical cases were created to represent 5 commonly encountered scenarios involving patients with sporadic unilateral small VSs, and the literature was reviewed with a focus on small VS. The authors extrapolated from the data to the hypothetical case scenarios, and based on the level of evidence, they discuss the most suitable patient-specific treatment strategies. They conclude that observation and imaging, stereotactic radiosurgery, and microsurgery are all important components of the management strategy. Each has unique advantages and disadvantages best suited to certain clinical scenarios. The treatment of small VS should always be tailored to the clinical, personal, and social requirements of an individual patient, and a rigid treatment protocol is not practical.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010