Adnan I. Qureshi, Gabriela Vazquez, Nauman Tariq, M. Fareed K. Suri, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan and Giuseppe Lanzino
The utilization of endovascular treatment for ruptured intracranial aneurysms is expected to change since the publication of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) in 2002. The authors performed this analysis to determine the impact of ISAT results on treatment selection for ruptured intracranial aneurysms and associated in-hospital outcomes using nationally representative data.
We determined the national estimates of treatments used for ruptured intracranial aneurysms and associated in-hospital outcomes, length of stay, mortality, and cost incurred using the Nationwide Inpatient Survey (NIS) data. The NIS is the largest all-payer inpatient care database in the US and contains data from 986 hospitals approximating a 20% stratified sample of US hospitals. All the variables pertaining to hospitalization were compared between 2000–2002 and 2004–2006, and in-hospital outcomes were analyzed using multivariate analysis.
In the 3-year periods prior to and after the ISAT, there were 70,637 and 77,352 admissions for ruptured intracranial aneurysms, respectively. There was a significant increase in endovascular treatment after publication of the ISAT (trend test, p < 0.0001) The in-hospital mortality for ruptured intracranial aneurysm admissions decreased from 27% to 24% (odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.83–0.96, p = 0.003) after the publication of the ISAT. The cost of hospitalization after adjusting for procedures practices was not significantly higher after the publication of the ISAT ($21,437 vs $22,817, p < 0.89), but cost of hospitalization was higher in the post-ISAT period for patients undergoing endovascular procedure.
The results of the ISAT have been associated with a prominent change in practice patterns related to the treatment of ruptured aneurysms. The cost of hospitalization has increased and the mortality has decreased, presumably due to a larger proportion of patients receiving any treatment and endovascular treatment.
Alberto Maud, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, M. Fareed K. Suri, Gabriela Vazquez, Giuseppe Lanzino and Adnan I. Qureshi
The results of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) demonstrated lower rates of death and disability with endovascular treatment (coiling) than with open surgery (clipping) to secure the ruptured intracranial aneurysm. However, cost-effectiveness may not be favorable because of the greater need for follow-up cerebral angiograms and additional follow-up treatment with endovascular methods. In this study, the authors' goal was to compare the cost-effectiveness of endovascular and neurosurgical treatments in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who were eligible to undergo either type of treatment.
Clinical data (age, sex, frequency of retreatment, and rebleeding) and quality of life values were obtained from the ISAT. Total cost included those associated with disability, hospitalization, retreatment, and rebleeding. Cost estimates were derived from the Premier Perspective Comparative Database, data from long-term care in stroke patients, and relevant literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated during a 1-year period. Parametric bootstrapping was used to determine the uncertainty of the estimates.
The median estimated costs of endovascular and neurosurgical treatments (in US dollars) were $45,493 (95th percentile range $44,693–$46,365) and $41,769 (95th percentile range $41,094–$42,518), respectively. The overall quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in the endovascular group was 0.69, and for the neurosurgical group it was 0.64. The cost per QALY in the endovascular group was $65,424 (95th percentile range $64,178–$66,772), and in the neurosurgical group it was $64,824 (95th percentile range $63,679–$66,086). The median estimated ICER at 1 year for endovascular treatment versus neurosurgical treatment was $72,872 (95th percentile range $50,344–$98,335) per QALY gained. Given that most postprocedure angiograms and additional treatments occurred in the 1st year and the 1-year disability status is unlikely to change in the future, ICER for endovascular treatment will progressively decrease over time.
Using outcome and economic data obtained in the US at 1 year after the procedure, endovascular treatment is more costly but is associated with better outcomes than the neurosurgical alternative among patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who are eligible to undergo either procedure. With accrual of additional years with a better outcome status, the ICER for endovascular coiling would be expected to progressively decrease and eventually reverse.