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G. Rees Cosgrove and Jacques Théron

✓ Fistulous communication between the vertebral artery and its surrounding venous plexus is rare. Two cases of vertebral arteriovenous fistula following anterior cervical spine surgery are reported. The anatomic relationships of the vertebral vessels, the radiographic findings, and the various therapeutic approaches to these lesions are discussed.

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Maya Harary and G. Rees Cosgrove

Although French psychiatrist-turned-neurosurgeon Jean Talairach (1911–2007) is perhaps best known for the stereotaxic atlas he produced with Pierre Tournoux and Gábor Szikla, he has left his mark on most aspects of modern stereotactic and functional neurosurgery. In the field of psychosurgery, he expressed critique of the practice of prefrontal lobotomy and subsequently was the first to describe the more selective approach using stereotactic bilateral anterior capsulotomy. Turning his attention to stereotaxy, Talairach spearheaded the team at Hôpital Sainte-Anne in the construction of novel stereotaxic apparatus. Cadaveric investigation using these tools and methods resulted in the first human stereotaxic atlas where the use of the anterior and posterior commissures as intracranial reference points was established. This work revolutionized the approach to cerebral localization as well as leading to the development of numerous novel stereotactic interventions by the Sainte-Anne team, including tumor biopsy, interstitial irradiation, thermal ablation, and endonasal procedures. Together with epileptologist Jean Bancaud, Talairach invented the field of stereo-electroencephalography and developed a robust scientific methodology for the assessment and treatment of epilepsy. In this article the authors review Talairach’s career trajectory in its historical context and in view of its impact on modern stereotactic and functional neurosurgery.

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G. Rees Cosgrove, Jean-Guy Villemure, and Denis Melançon

✓ A case is presented of false intracranial aneurysm of traumatic origin which developed following direct surgical attack on a congenital anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The secondary aneurysm was discovered on the 25th postoperative day and was clipped at a subsequent procedure. The possible pathophysiology is discussed with respect to other direct vessel injuries.

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W. Jeff Elias and G. Rees Cosgrove

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Aviva Abosch and G. Rees Cosgrove

An estimated 20% of patients with major depression are refractory to existing therapies. The purpose of this review is to provide a theoretical and neuroscientific framework in which to interpret new work in the field of surgical treatment for depression. This review focuses on existing clinical and imaging data, current disease models, and results of recent case reports and patient series that together may inform the construction of appropriate clinical trials for the surgical treatment of refractory depression.

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Stephen B. Tatter and G. Rees Cosgrove

✓ Juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine have been reported with increasing frequency but their pathogenesis remains obscure. These cysts most frequently present with back pain, followed by chronic progressive radiculopathy or gradual onset of symptoms of spinal canal compromise. The authors report an unusual case of hemorrhage into a right L3–4 synovial cyst causing an acute cauda equina syndrome and describe its successful surgical treatment. The clinical, radiographic, and pathological features are discussed.

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David J. Segar, Yosef G. Chodakiewitz, Radmehr Torabi, and G. Rees Cosgrove

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported to have beneficial effects in severe, treatment-refractory cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). In this report, the authors present the first case in which DBS was used to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Kleefstra syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by childhood hypotonia, intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and myriad psychiatric and behavioral disturbances. A 24-year-old female patient with childhood hypotonia, developmental delay, and diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder, OCD, and TS refractory to medical management underwent the placement of bilateral ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) DBS leads, with clinical improvement. Medical providers and family observed gradual and progressive improvement in the patient's compulsive behaviors, coprolalia, speech, and social interaction. Symptoms recurred when both DBS electrodes failed because of lead fracture and dislodgement, although the clinical benefits were restored by lead replacement. The symptomatic and functional improvements observed in this case of VC/VS DBS for Kleefstra syndrome suggest a novel indication for DBS worthy of further investigation.

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William T. Curry Jr., G. Rees Cosgrove, Bradley R. Buchbinder, and Robert G. Ojemann

Intraventricular meningiomas of the lateral ventricle occur relatively rarely, but they are often large at the time of detection and present more commonly on the left side. Although the ability to resect these tumors safely has greatly improved over time, standard surgical approaches often traverse cortex close to areas of specific cortical function. Precise cortical mapping of language and sensorimotor cortices can be accomplished noninvasively by using functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging. The authors used fMR imaging in planning the cortical incision for resection of a large intraventricular trigone meningioma in the dominant hemisphere of a patient who, postoperatively, suffered no aphasia or hemiparesis. The authors discuss the advantages of mapping cortical function preoperatively with fMR imaging when approaching intraventricular lesions.