Tizian Rosenstock, Ulrike Grittner, Güliz Acker, Vera Schwarzer, Nataliia Kulchytska, Peter Vajkoczy and Thomas Picht
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a noninvasive method for preoperatively localizing functional areas in patients with tumors in presumed motor eloquent areas. The aim of this study was to establish an nTMS-based risk stratification model by examining whether the results of nTMS mapping and its neurophysiological data predict postoperative motor outcome in glioma surgery.
Included in this study were prospectively collected data for 113 patients undergoing bihemispheric nTMS examination prior to surgery for gliomas in presumed motor eloquent locations. Multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to test for any association between preoperative nTMS-related variables and postoperative motor outcome.
A new motor deficit or deterioration due to a preexisting deficit was observed in 20% of cases after 7 days and in 22% after 3 months. In terms of tumor location, no new permanent deficit was observed when the distance between tumor and corticospinal tract was greater than 8 mm and the precentral gyrus was not infiltrated (p = 0.014). New postoperative deficits on Day 7 were associated with a pathological excitability of the motor cortices (interhemispheric resting motor threshold [RMT] ratio < 90% or > 110%, p = 0.031). Interestingly, motor function never improved when the RMT was significantly higher in the tumorous hemisphere than in the healthy hemisphere (RMT ratio > 110%).
The proposed risk stratification model, based on objective functional-anatomical and neurophysiological measures, enables one to counsel patients about the risk of functional deterioration or the potential for recovery.
Güliz Acker, Nicolas Schlinkmann, Lucius Fekonja, Lukas Grünwald, Juliane Hardt, Marcus Czabanka and Peter Vajkoczy
Moyamoya vasculopathy (MMV) is a steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease that can be treated by a surgical revascularization. All the revascularization techniques influence the blood supply of the scalp, with a risk for wound healing disorders. The authors’ aim was to analyze the wound healing process in the patients who underwent a direct or combined bypass surgery with a focus on different skin incisions.
The authors retrospectively identified all the patients with MMV who were treated surgically in their institution. Subsequently, they analyzed demographic data, clinical symptoms, surgical treatment, and detailed history of complications. Based on the evolution of their surgical techniques and the revascularization strategy to be used, the authors applied the following skin incisions: linear incision, curved incision, incomplete Y incision, and complete Y incision. Group comparisons regarding wound healing disorders were performed with significance testing using Fisher’s exact test.
The authors identified 172 patients with MMV (61.6% moyamoya disease, 7% unilateral moyamoya disease, 29.7% moyamoya syndrome, and 1.7% unilateral moyamoya syndrome), of whom 124 underwent bilateral operations. One-quarter of the patients were juveniles. A total of 236 hemispheres were included in the analysis, of which 27.9% were treated by a combined procedure with encephalomyosynangiosis. Overall, 5.1% major and 1.7% minor wound complications occurred. The overall wound complication rate was lower in direct revascularization compared to combined revascularization (3% vs 15.2%). The lowest incidence of wound healing disorders was found in the linear incision group for the parietal superficial temporal artery branch (1.6%), followed by the incomplete Y incision group for the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery (3.8%) in the direct bypass group. In the combined revascularization cohort, major or minor wound disorders appeared in 14.3% and 4.8%, respectively, in the complete Y incision group and in 4.2% (for both major and minor) in the curved incision group. The complete Y incision caused significantly more wound healing disorders compared to the remaining incision types (17.1% vs 3.1%, p = 0.007).
Wound healing disorders are one of the major complications of revascularization surgery. Their incidence depends on the revascularization strategy and skin incision applied, with a complete Y incision giving the worst results.