Rei Yamaguchi, Masahiko Tosaka, Takaaki Miyagishima, Tadashi Osawa, Keishi Horiguchi, Fumiaki Honda and Yuhei Yoshimoto
Visual acuity impairment due to sellar and suprasellar tumors is not fully understood. The relationship between these tumors and disturbance of visual function was examined using preoperative MRI.
This study reviewed 93 consecutive patients with sellar and suprasellar tumors. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and visual impairment score (VIS) were used for estimation of visual impairments. Preoperative MR images were examined to obtain several values for estimation of chiasmatic compression. Additionally, the optic nerve–canal bending angle (ONCBA) was newly defined as the external angle formed by the optic nerve in the optic canal and the optic nerve in the intracranial subarachnoid space at the junction, using preoperative sagittal T2-weighted MR images.
The mean ONCBA was about the same on the right (44° ± 25°) and the left (44° ± 24°). Sagittal ONCBA was defined as large (> 45°) and moderate (≤ 45°) on each side. Preoperative VIS was found to be significantly worse if the right or left ONCBA (or both) was large (right side: ONCBA large [median 20, IQR 8–30] > ONCBA moderate [median 10, IQR 3–17], p = 0.003, Mann-Whitney U-test; left side: ONCBA large [median 22, IQR 9–30] > ONCBA moderate [median 10, IQR 2–16], p = 0.001). A large ONCBA showed a significant relationship with unfavorable ipsilateral BCVA (> logMAR, 0; right side, p = 0.001, left side, p = 0.001, chi-square test). The ONCBA had a positive correlation with ipsilateral BCVA (right: r = 0.297, p = 0.031; left: r = 0.451, p = 0.000, Pearson’s correlation coefficient). Preoperative BCVA was significantly lower on the same side in the large ONCBA group compared with the moderate ONCBA group (right side: large ONCBA 0.169 ± 0.333 [logMAR, mean ± standard deviation] vs moderate ONCBA 0.045 ± 0.359, p = 0.026, Student t-test; left side: large ONCBA 0.245 ± 0.346 vs moderate ONCBA 0.025 ± 0.333, p = 0.000). This visual acuity impairment improved after resection of the tumors.
Sagittal bending of the optic nerve at the entrance from the intracranial subarachnoid space to the optic canal may be related to ipsilateral deterioration of visual acuity in sellar and suprasellar lesions. Sagittal T2-weighted MRI is recommended for preoperative estimation of the optic nerve bending.
Hideaki Imai, Kenjiro Konno, Mitsunobu Nakamura, Tatsuya Shimizu, Chisato Kubota, Koji Seki, Fumiaki Honda, Shinichiro Tomizawa, Yukitaka Tanaka, Hidekazu Hata and Nobuhito Saito
The purpose of this set of studies is to design a minimally invasive, reproducible stroke model in the gyrencephalic brain. This paper provides information on both surgical technique and methods of quantification of ischemic damage to both gray and white matter in the miniature pig.
Sixteen male miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups and underwent transcranial surgery involving a frontotemporal approach with orbital rim osteotomy for permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; five animals), permanent internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO; six animals), and a sham operation (five animals). Histological mapping and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were used to delineate the areas of ischemic damage. The volumes of infarction measured directly from MR images were 16.2 ± 1.1, 1.5 ± 0.5, and 0.0 ± 0.0 cm3 (mean ± standard deviation [SD], p < 0.001) in the MCAO, ICAO, and sham-operated groups, respectively. The areas of ischemia identified through histological analysis and MR imaging showed a good correlation (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.0001). Immunohistochemical staining with an amyloid precursor protein (APP) antibody was used to evaluate axonal damage and calculate a total APP score for axonal damage of 44.8 ± 2.9 in the MCAO, 13.2 ± 6.6 in the ICAO, and 0.0 ± 0.0 (mean ± SD, p < 0.002) in the sham-operated animals.
This new model of focal cerebral ischemia induces a reproducible amount of ischemic damage in both gray and white matter, and has significant utility for studies of the pathophysiology of ischemia in the gyrencephalic brain and for assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of drugs prior to the initiation of human clinical trials.
Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Takao Yasuhara, Toshitaka Seki, Kei Watanabe, Yuki Tanaka, Ryu Kurokawa, Hideaki Kanaya, Fumiaki Honda, Takashi Itabashi, Osamu Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Murata, Takahiro Tanaka, Yusuke Nishimura, Kaoru Eguchi, Toshihiro Takami, Yusuke Watanabe, Takeo Nishida, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Tatsuya Ohtonari, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Seishi Matsui, Hisaaki Uchikado, Gohsuke Hattori, Nobutaka Horie, Hitoshi Yamahata and Makoto Taniguchi
Spinal arteriovenous shunts are rare vascular lesions and are classified into 4 types (types I–IV). Due to rapid advances in neuroimaging, spinal epidural AVFs (edAVFs), which are similar to type I spinal dural AVFs (dAVFs), have recently been increasingly reported. These 2 entities have several important differences that influence the treatment strategy selected. The purposes of the present study were to compare angiographic and clinical differences between edAVFs and dAVFs and to provide treatment strategies for edAVFs based on a multicenter cohort.
A total of 280 consecutive patients with thoracic and lumbosacral spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) and edAVFs with intradural venous drainage were collected from 19 centers. After angiographic and clinical comparisons, the treatment failure rate by procedure, risk factors for treatment failure, and neurological outcomes were statistically analyzed in edAVF cases.
Final diagnoses after an angiographic review included 199 dAVFs and 81 edAVFs. At individual centers, 29 patients (36%) with edAVFs were misdiagnosed with dAVFs. Spinal edAVFs were commonly fed by multiple feeding arteries (54%) shunted into a single or multiple intradural vein(s) (91% and 9%) through a dilated epidural venous plexus. Preoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades were worse in patients with edAVFs than in those with dAVFs. Among the microsurgical (n = 42), endovascular (n = 36), and combined (n = 3) treatment groups of edAVFs, the treatment failure rate was significantly higher in the index endovascular treatment group (7.5%, 31%, and 0%, respectively). Endovascular treatment was found to be associated with significantly higher odds of initial treatment failure (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.45–22.6). In edAVFs, the independent risk factor for treatment failure after microsurgery was the number of intradural draining veins (OR 17.9, 95% CI 1.56–207), while that for treatment failure after the endovascular treatment was the number of feeders (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.23–13.8). Postoperatively, mRS score and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades significantly improved in edAVFs with a median follow-up of 31 months.
Spinal epidural AVFs with intradural venous drainage are a distinct entity and may be classified as type V spinal vascular malformations. Based on the largest multicenter cohort, this study showed that primary microsurgery was superior to endovascular treatment for initial treatment success in patients with spinal edAVFs.