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Warren Boling, Frederick Andermann, David Reutens, François Dubeau, Laetitia Caporicci, and André Olivier

Object. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in older (≥ 50 years of age) patients.

Methods. The authors conducted a review of all patients 50 years of age or older with TLE surgically treated at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital since 1981 by one surgeon (A.O.). Only patients without a mass lesion were included. Outcome parameters were compared with those of younger individuals with TLE, who were stratified by age at operation.

In patients aged 50 years and older, the onset of complex partial seizures occurred 5 to 53 years (mean 35 years) prior to the time of surgery. Postoperatively, over a mean follow-up period of 64 months, 15 patients (83%) obtained a meaningful improvement, becoming either free from seizures or only experiencing a rare seizure. Most surgery outcomes were similar in both older and younger individuals, except for a trend to more freedom from seizures and increased likelihood of returning to work or usual activities in the younger patients. Note that a patient's long-standing seizure disorder did not negatively affect their ability to achieve freedom from seizures following surgery.

Conclusions. Surgery for TLE appears to be effective for older individuals, comparing favorably with results in younger age groups, and carries a small risk of postoperative complications.

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Taner Tanriverdi, André Olivier, Nicole Poulin, Frederick Andermann, and François Dubeau

Object

The authors report long-term follow-up seizure outcome in patients who underwent corpus callosotomy during the period 1981–2001 at the Montreal Neurological Institute.

Methods

The records of 95 patients with a minimum follow-up of 5 years (mean 17.2 years) were retrospectively evaluated with respect to seizure, medication outcomes, and prognostic factors on seizure outcome.

Results

All patients had more than one type of seizure, most frequently drop attacks and generalized tonicclonic seizures. The most disabling seizure type was drop attacks, followed by generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Improvement was noted in several seizure types and was most likely for generalized tonic-clonic seizures (77.3%) and drop attacks (77.2%). Simple partial, generalized tonic, and myoclonic seizures also benefited from anterior callosotomy. The extent of the callosal section was correlated with favorable seizure outcome. The complications were mild and transient and no death was seen.

Conclusions

This study confirms that anterior callosotomy is an effective treatment in intractable generalized seizures that are not amenable to focal resection. When considering this procedure, the treating physician must thoroughly assess the expected benefits, limitations, likelihood of residual seizures, and the risks, and explain them to the patient, his or her family, and other caregivers.

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Taner Tanriverdi, Andre Olivier, Nicole Poulin, Frederick Andermann, and François Dubeau

Object

Resection strategies for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are a matter of discussion, and little information is available. The aim of this study was to compare seizure outcomes at the 5-year follow-up in patients with medically refractory unilateral mesial TLE (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who were treated using a cortical amygdalohippocampectomy (CorAH) or a selective AH (SelAH).

Methods

The authors obtained data from 100 adult patients who underwent surgery for MTLE. Fifty patients underwent a CorAH and 50 underwent an SelAH. Seizure control achieved with each technique was compared using the Engel classification scheme.

Results

Overall, at the 5-year follow-up, favorable (Engel Classes I and II) seizure outcomes were noted in 82 and 90% of patients who had undergone CorAH and SelAH, respectively. Furthermore, 40% of the patients who had undergone a CorAH and 58% of those who had undergone an SelAH were seizure free (Engel Class Ia). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 surgical approaches in terms of seizure outcome at the 5-year follow-up (p = 0.38).

Conclusions

Both CorAH and SelAH can lead to similar favorable seizure control in patients with MTLE/HS. However, the authors suggest that the transcortical selective approach has the great advantage of minimizing or completely abolishing the impact of dividing several venous and arterial adhesions which are tedious, time consuming, and, at times, associated with some degree of cerebral swelling.

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Hideaki Tanaka, Jean Gotman, Hui Ming Khoo, André Olivier, Jeffery Hall, and François Dubeau

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to determine which neurophysiological seizure-onset features seen during scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and intracerebral EEG (iEEG) monitoring are predictors of postoperative outcome in a large series of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent resective surgery.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the records of 75 consecutive patients with focal epilepsy, who first underwent scalp EEG and then iEEG (stereo-EEG) for presurgical assessment and who went on to undergo resective surgery between 2004 and 2015. To determine the independent prognostic factors from the neurophysiological scalp EEG and iEEG seizure-onset information, univariate and standard multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Since scalp EEG and iEEG data were recorded at different times, the authors matched scalp seizures with intracerebral seizures for each patient using strict criteria.

RESULTS

A total of 3057 seizures were assessed. Forty-eight percent (36/75) of patients had a favorable outcome (Engel class I–II) after a minimum follow-up of at least 1 year. According to univariate analysis, a localized scalp EEG seizure onset (p < 0.001), a multilobar intracerebral seizure-onset zone (SOZ) (p < 0.001), and an extended SOZ (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with surgical outcome. According to multivariable analysis, the following two independent factors were found: 1) the ability of scalp EEG to localize the seizure onset was a predictor of a favorable postoperative outcome (OR 6.073, 95% CI 2.011–18.339, p = 0.001), and 2) a multilobar SOZ was a predictor of an unfavorable outcome (OR 0.076, 95% CI 0.009–0.663, p = 0.020).

CONCLUSIONS

The study findings show that localization at scalp seizure onset and a multilobar SOZ were strong predictors of surgical outcome. These predictors can help to select the better candidates for resective surgery.

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Antonio Nogueira de Almeida, André Olivier, Felipe Quesney, François Dubeau, Ghislaine Savard, and Frederick Andermann

Object

The purpose of this paper was to define the general efficacy of and morbidity associated with stereoelectroencephalography using modern methods of imaging and to particularize the risks related to specific lobes of the brain.

Methods

All patients admitted to the Montreal Neurological Institute who had undergone either computerized tomography – or magnetic resonance imaging–guided electrode implantation by one surgeon (A.O.) were reviewed. The procedure was considered efficient if the obtained information was sufficient to make a decision either in support of or against surgery.

Two hundred seventeen patients underwent 224 implantations with 3022 electrodes. Complications related to each lobe were as follows: temporal lobe, two abscesses (0.54%); frontal lobe, one abscess and three hematomas (1.4%); and occipital lobe, one hypointense lesion found 1 week after electrode explantation (2.6%). Significant risk factors associated with hematomas were implantation in the frontal lobe (p < 0.05) and the use of four or more implanted electrodes (p < 0.025).

General complications included the following: 26 patients, psychiatric symptoms during monitoring; one patient, meningitis; four patients, scalp cellulitis; and two patients, hemiparesis during angiography in the early 1980s. One of these latter patients maintained a mild hemiparesis and represents the only case of permanent neurological sequela in the entire series. Data obtained during recordings supported an indication for surgery in 178 patients (79.5%), excluded a surgical option in 37 patients (16.5%), and were unsatisfactory in nine patients (4%). Thus, the overall efficacy as defined previously was 96%.

Conclusions

Stereoelectroencephalography is an efficient procedure with low associated morbidity. Bilateral exploration of the temporal lobes has a morbidity rate of approximately 1%. A higher risk of hematomas occurs with the implantation of four or more electrodes in the frontal lobes.

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Sandeep Mittal, José L. Montes, Jean-Pierre Farmer, Bernard Rosenblatt, François Dubeau, Frederick Andermann, Nicole Poulin, and André Olivier

Object

Surgery is an accepted treatment for carefully selected patients with focal epilepsy. In the present study, the authors assessed clinical and surgery-related data obtained in a large series of children suffering from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Methods

Etiological, pathological, and clinical features of possible prognostic significance were studied in 109 children who underwent surgery for TLE at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital and the Montreal Children's Hospital between 1985 and 2000.

The mean age of patients at seizure onset was 5.5 years and the duration of epilepsy ranged from 0.1 to 17.6 years. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed mesial sclerosis in 51 patients, a mass lesion in 45, and no visible abnormalities in 12. In six patients invasive monitoring was required. Cortical amygdalohippocampectomy was performed in 72% of patients, whereas 20% underwent transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy. In 23 patients a second surgical intervention was necessary. Low-grade tumors were found in 35% and mesial sclerosis was confirmed on pathological evaluation in 45%. Outcome was excellent (seizure free or > 90% reduction) in 94 patients (86%). The patients were followed prospectively for a median of 10.9 years (range 5–20.2 years). There were no permanent neurological complications and no deaths.

Conclusions

Successful postsurgical outcomes, especially in patients treated for mesial temporal lobe sclerosis and lesion-related epilepsies, can be obtained in pediatric patients suffering minimal complications. Unfavorable outcomes are most likely to occur when epileptiform discharges are bitemporal or multifocal in distribution and in cases involving incomplete resection of mesiotemporal structures.

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Aviva Abosch, Neda Bernasconi, Warren Boling, Marilyn Jones-Gotman, Nicole Poulin, François Dubeau, Frederick Andermann, and André Olivier

Object. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) is used in the treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The goal of this study was to determine factors predictive of poor postoperative seizure control (Engel Class III or IV) following SelAH.

Methods. A retrospective study was conducted of 27 patients with poor seizure control postoperatively (Engel III/IV group), in comparison with 27 patients who were free from seizures after surgery (Engel I/II group). The results of electroencephalography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and pathological studies were reviewed, and volumetric MR image analysis was used to compare the extent of the mesial structures that had been resected.

In 56% of patients in the Engel III/IV group, significant bitemporal abnormalities were displayed on preoperative EEG studies, compared with 24% of patients in the Engel I/II group (p < 0.05). An analysis of preoperative MR images disclosed five patients (19%) in the Engel III/IV group and no patient in the Engel I/II group with normal hippocampal volumes bilaterally. Thirteen patients in the Engel III/IV group subsequently underwent either extension of the SelAH (six cases) or a corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (seven patients). Three patients from the former and one patient from the latter subgroup subsequently became seizure free (four patients total [34%]). The remaining nine patients did not improve, despite the fact that they had undergone near-total resection of mesial structures.

Conclusions. The majority of patients receiving suboptimal seizure control following SelAH did not meet the criteria for unilateral MTLE, based on EEG, MR imaging, and/or histopathological studies. These patients were therefore unlikely to benefit from additional resection of mesial structures. With the benefits of modern imaging, and by strict adherence to selection criteria, SelAH can be predicted to yield excellent postoperative seizure control for nearly all patients with unilateral MTLE. There remains a subpopulation, however, that meets the criteria for MTLE, but does not become free from seizure following SelAH.

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Mark C. Preul, Richard Leblanc, Fernando Cendes, Francois Dubeau, David Reutens, Roberto Spreafico, Giorgio Battaglia, Massimo Avoli, Pierre Langevin, Douglas L. Arnold, and Jean-Guy Villemure

✓ Cerebral dysgenesis is a subject of interest because of its relationship to cerebral development and dysfunction and to epilepsy. The authors present a detailed study of a 16-year-old boy who underwent surgery for a severe seizure disorder. This patient had dysgenesis of the right hemisphere, which was composed of a giant central frontoparietal nodular gray matter heterotopia with overlying large islands of cortical dysplasia around a displaced central fissure. Exceptional insight into the function, biochemistry, electrophysiology, and histological structure of this lesion was obtained from neurological studies that revealed complementary information: magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, [18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (PET), functional PET scanning, proton MR spectroscopic (1H-MRS) imaging, intraoperative cortical mapping and electrocorticography, in vitro electrophysiology, and immunocytochemistry. These studies demonstrated compensatory cortical reorganization and showed that large areas of heterotopia and cortical dysplasia in the central area may retain normal motor and sensory function despite strikingly altered cytoarchitectonic organization and neuronal metabolism. Such lesions necessitate appropriate functional imaging studies prior to surgery and cortical mapping to avoid creating neurological deficits. Integrated studies, such as PET, 1H-MRS imaging, cortical mapping, immunocytochemistry, and electrophysiology may provide information on the function of developmental disorders of cerebral organization.

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Solon Schur, Jeremy T. Moreau, Hui Ming Khoo, Andreas Koupparis, Elisabeth Simard Tremblay, Kenneth A. Myers, Bradley Osterman, Bernard Rosenblatt, Jean-Pierre Farmer, Christine Saint-Martin, Sophie Turpin, Jeff Hall, Andre Olivier, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Sylvain Baillet, Francois Dubeau, Jean Gotman, and Roy W. R. Dudley

OBJECTIVE

In an attempt to improve postsurgical seizure outcomes for poorly defined cases (PDCs) of pediatric focal epilepsy (i.e., those that are not visible or well defined on 3T MRI), the authors modified their presurgical evaluation strategy. Instead of relying on concordance between video-electroencephalography and 3T MRI and using functional imaging and intracranial recording in select cases, the authors systematically used a multimodal, 3-tiered investigation protocol that also involved new collaborations between their hospital, the Montreal Children’s Hospital, and the Montreal Neurological Institute. In this study, the authors examined how their new strategy has impacted postsurgical outcomes. They hypothesized that it would improve postsurgical seizure outcomes, with the added benefit of identifying a subset of tests contributing the most.

METHODS

Chart review was performed for children with PDCs who underwent resection following the new strategy (i.e., new protocol [NP]), and for the same number who underwent treatment previously (i.e., preprotocol [PP]); ≥ 1-year follow-up was required for inclusion. Well-defined, multifocal, and diffuse hemispheric cases were excluded. Preoperative demographics and clinical characteristics, resection volumes, and pathology, as well as seizure outcomes (Engel class Ia vs > Ia) at 1 year postsurgery and last follow-up were reviewed.

RESULTS

Twenty-two consecutive NP patients were compared with 22 PP patients. There was no difference between the two groups for resection volumes, pathology, or preoperative characteristics, except that the NP group underwent more presurgical evaluation tests (p < 0.001). At 1 year postsurgery, 20 of 22 NP patients and 10 of 22 PP patients were seizure free (OR 11.81, 95% CI 2.00–69.68; p = 0.006). Magnetoencephalography and PET/MRI were associated with improved postsurgical seizure outcomes, but both were highly correlated with the protocol group (i.e., independent test effects could not be demonstrated).

CONCLUSIONS

A new presurgical evaluation strategy for children with PDCs of focal epilepsy led to improved postsurgical seizure freedom. No individual presurgical evaluation test was independently associated with improved outcome, suggesting that it may be the combined systematic protocol and new interinstitutional collaborations that makes the difference rather than any individual test.