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Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Corrado Lucantoni, Francesco Signorelli and Liverana Lauretti

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Felix Scholtes, Francesco Signorelli and Michel W. Bojanowski

Intraventricular hemorrhage is common after the rupture of anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms, although the anatomical pathway has not been described. Knowledge of the mechanism of hemorrhage may enhance understanding of its prognosis. Using CT angiography, the authors analyzed this pathway in 2 cases of ACoA aneurysm rupture associated with intraventricular hemorrhage. The initial hemorrhages created a hyperdense ventriculographic image on which the subsequent contrast medium ejection could be followed. The contrast medium entered the subarachnoid space of the anterior interhemispheric fissure and broke through the lamina rostralis into the septum pellucidum and into the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. Thus, the authors provide an explanation for bleeding from ACoA aneurysms into the ventricular system in the presence of an intact lamina terminalis. The septum pellucidum may act as a buffer before extension of the bleeding into the ventricular system.

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Andrea Szelényi, Lorenzo Bello, Hugues Duffau, Enrica Fava, Guenther C. Feigl, Miroslav Galanda, Georg Neuloh, Francesco Signorelli and Francesco Sala

There is increasing evidence that the extent of tumor removal in low-grade glioma surgery is related to patient survival time. Thus, the goal of resecting the largest amount of tumor possible without leading to permanent neurological sequelae is a challenge for the neurosurgeon. Electrical stimulation of the brain to detect cortical and axonal areas involved in motor, language, and cognitive function and located within the tumor or along its boundaries has become an essential tool in combination with awake craniotomy. Based on a literature review, discussions within the European Low-Grade Glioma Group, and illustrative clinical experience, the authors of this paper provide an overview for neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists, linguists, and anesthesiologists as well as those new to the field about the stimulation techniques currently being used for mapping sensorimotor, language, and cognitive function in awake surgery for low-grade glioma. The paper is intended to help the understanding of these techniques and facilitate a comparison of results between users.