DeWitte Cross and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the elderly
Giuseppe Lanzino and Alejandro A. Rabinstein
François Proust, Françoise Callonec, Francis Bellow, Annie Laquerriere, Didier Hannequin, and Pierre Fréger
✓ The authors report an unusual case of a traumatic aneurysm of the right superior cerebellar artery (SCA). A 22-year-old woman presented with continuous headaches that appeared 15 days after she experienced closed head trauma as a result of a cycling accident. Computerized tomography scanning performed 3 months later showed a nodular lesion on the free edge of the tentorium, which mimicked a meningioma. The aneurysm was identified on magnetic resonance angiography, which showed the SCA as the parent vessel. The parent vessel was trapped, and the aneurysm sac was excised via right temporal craniotomy. Pathological examination of the sac revealed a false aneurysm. The patient's outcome was excellent. The pathophysiology of traumatic aneurysm at such a location suggests that surgery may be the treatment of choice.
François Proust, Bertrand Debono, Didier Hannequin, Emmanuel Gerardin, Erick Clavier, Olivier Langlois, and Pierre Fréger
Object. Endovascular and surgical treatment must be clearly defined in the management of anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. In this study the authors report their recent experience in using a combined surgical and endovascular team approach for ACoA aneurysms, and compare these results with those obtained during an earlier period in which surgical treatment was used alone. Morbidity and mortality rates, causes of unfavorable outcomes, and morphological results were also assessed.
Methods. The prospective study included 223 patients who were divided into three groups: Group A (83 microsurgically treated patients, 1990–1995); Group B (103 microsurgically treated patients, 1996–2000); and Group C (37 patients treated with Guglielmi Detachable Coil [GDC] embolization, 1996–2000). Depending on the direction in which the aneurysm fundus projected, the authors attempted to apply microsurgical treatment to Type 1 aneurysms (located in front of the axis formed by the pericallosal arteries). They proposed the most adapted procedure for Type 2 aneurysms (located behind the axis of the pericallosal arteries) after discussion with the neurovascular team, depending on the physiological status of the patient, the treatment risk, and the size of the aneurysm neck. In accordance with the classification of Hunt and Hess, the authors designated those patients with unruptured aneurysms (Grade 0) and some patients with ruptured aneurysms (Grades I–III) as having good preoperative grades. Patients with Grade IV or V hemorrhages were designated as having poor preoperative grades. By performing routine angiography and computerized tomography scanning, the causes of unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] score < 5) and the morphological results (complete or incomplete occlusion) were analyzed.
Overall, the clinical outcome was excellent (GOS Score 5) in 65% of patients, good (GOS Score 4) in 9.4%, fair (GOS Score 3) in 11.6%, poor (GOS Score 2) in 3.6%, and fatal in 10.3% (GOS Score 1). Among 166 patients in good preoperative grades, an excellent outcome was observed in 134 patients (80.7%). The combined permanent morbidity and mortality rate accounted for up to 19.3% of patients. The rates of permanent morbidity and death that were related to the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage were 6.2 and 1.5% for Group A, 6.6 and 1.3% for Group B, and 4 and 4% for Group C, respectively. The rates of permanent morbidity and death that were related to the procedure were 15.4 and 1.5% for Group A, 3.9 and 0% for Group B, and 8 and 8% for Group C, respectively. When microsurgical periods were compared, the rate of permanent morbidity or death related to microsurgical complications decreased significantly (Group A, 11 patients [16.9%] and Group B, three patients [3.9%]); Fisher exact test, p = 0.011) from the period of 1990 to 1995 to the period of 1996 to 2000. The combined rate of morbidity and mortality that was related to the endovascular procedure (16%) explained the nonsignificance of the different rates of procedural complications for the two periods, despite the significant decrease in the number of microsurgical complications. Among 57 patients in poor preoperative grade, an excellent outcome was observed in 11 patients (19.3%); however, permanent morbidity (GOS Scores 2–4) or death (GOS Score 1) occurred in 46 patients (80.7%). With regard to the correlation between vessel occlusion (the primary microsurgical complication) and the morphological characteristics of aneurysms, only the direction in which the fundus projected appeared significant as a risk factor for the microsurgically treated groups (Fisher exact test: Group A, p = 0.03; Group B, p = 0.002). The difference between endovascular and microsurgical procedures in the achievement of complete occlusion was considered significant (χ2 = 6.13, p = 0.01).
Conclusions. The direction in which the fundus projects was chosen as the morphological criterion between endovascular and surgical methods. The authors propose that microsurgical clip application should be the preferred option in the treatment of ACoA aneurysms with anteriorly directed fundi and that endovascular packing be selected for those lesions with posteriorly directed fundi, depending on morphological criteria.
Stéphane Derrey, Axel Lebas, Dominique Parain, Marie Gilles Baray, Christophe Marguet, Pierre Freger, and François Proust
Intracranial bleeding following stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) is rare and commonly occurs early after electrode implantation. The authors report the case of a delayed intracranial hematoma following sEEG. This 10-year-old boy was referred to the authors' department to undergo an sEEG study for intractable epilepsy, with the hypothesis of a single localized epileptic zone in the left precentral region. To perform the exploration, 14 depth electrodes were implanted under stereotactic conditions. The results of a postoperative CT scan performed routinely at the end of the surgical procedure were normal. Eight days later, following an epileptic seizure, the child's condition worsened. The neurological examination revealed a left hemiparesis, agitation, and coma due to a right subdural hematoma with intraparenchymal bleeding. Despite a surgical evacuation followed by a decompressive craniectomy, the curative treatments were stopped 1 week later due to severe diffuse ischemic lesions found on MRI studies.
This is the first observation of a delayed hematoma following an sEEG procedure. The mechanism underlying this complication remains unclear, but the rupture of a growing pseudoaneurysm caused by the electrode's implantation or the tearing of a neighboring vessel by an electrode were suspected. In consequence, physicians must remain vigilant during the entire sEEG recording period and probably also several days after electrode removal.
Sophie Curey, Stéphane Derrey, Pierre Hannequin, Didier Hannequin, Pierre Fréger, Marc Muraine, Hélène Castel, and François Proust
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ophthalmological outcome, nonvisual morbidity, and surgical complications after tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM) removal using a superior interhemispheric approach.
In the last decade, 20 consecutive patients with TSM underwent operations using the superior interhemispheric approach. Visual acuity, visual field, and ocular fundus examination were assessed both preoperatively and 6-months postoperatively. Nonvisual morbidity was determined at an early postoperative period and at 6 months based on assessment of the Karnofsky Performance Scale score, leakage of CSF, endocrinological status, and olfactory function, which was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). The potential brain injury related to the approach was assessed by MRI at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging was then performed yearly to detect a recurrence. The mean follow up was 56.3 ± 34 months.
The primary presenting symptom for diagnosis of TSM in 20 patients (female:male ratio of 6.6:1, mean age 59.1 ± 11.1 years) was visual disturbance in 12 patients (60%), headache in 4 (20%), cognitive alteration in 1 (5%), epilepsy in 2 (10%), and accidental in 1 (5%). In a total of 40 eyes, 17 eyes in 11 patients presented with preoperative deterioration of visual acuity. Postoperatively, the visual acuity improved in 13 eyes in 8 patients (72.8%), remained unchanged in 3 eyes in 2 patients (18.2%) and deteriorated in 1 patient (9%). The nonvisual morbidity included olfactory deterioration in 7 patients (35%), and panhypopituitarism in 1 patient (5%). No patients experienced a CSF leak. The impact of olfactory deterioration on the quality of life, as estimated by a VAS score (range 0–10), was a mean of 5.7 ± 2.2 (95% CI 4.1–7.3). On the follow-up MRI, no additional lesions or recurrences were observed on the medial aspect of the frontal lobe along the surgical corridor.
The superior interhemispheric approach appears to be effective in resolving the problem of visual deterioration due to a TSM, without inducing surgical injury on the brain surface along the surgical corridor. Olfactory deterioration remained the challenging predominant nonvisual morbidity using this approach.
François Proust, Patrick Toussaint, José Garniéri, Didier Hannequin, Daniel Legars, Jean-Pierre Houtteville, and Pierre Fréger
Object. The exceptional pediatric aneurysm can be distinguished from its adult counterpart by its location and size; however patient outcomes remain difficult to evaluate based on the published literature.
Methods. Twenty-two children, all consecutively treated in three neurosurgery departments, were included in this study. Each patient's preoperative status was determined according to the Hunt and Hess classification. Routine computerized tomography scanning and angiography were performed in all children on the 10th postoperative day. Each patient's clinical status was evaluated 2 to 10 years postoperatively by applying the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).
Twenty-one children presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and one child harbored an asymptomatic giant aneurysm. Thirteen patients were in good preoperative grade (Hunt and Hess Grades I to III) and eight in poor preoperative grade (Hunt and Hess Grade IV or V). The symptomatic aneurysms were located on the internal carotid artery bifurcation (36.4%); middle cerebral artery (36.4%), half of which were found on the distal portion; anterior communicating artery (18.2%); and within the vertebrobasilar system (9.1%). A giant aneurysm was observed in 14% of patients. Overall outcome was favorable (GOS Score 5) in 14 children (63.6%) and death occurred in five (22.7%). Causes of unfavorable outcome included the initial SAH in four children, a complication in procedure in three children, and edema in one child.
Conclusions. Pediatric aneurysms have a specific distribution unlike that of aneurysms in the adult population. The incidence of giant aneurysms and outcomes were similar to those in the adult population. The major cause of poor outcome was the initial SAH, in particular, the high proportion of rebleeding possibly due to a delay in diagnosis.
François Proust, Emmanuel Gérardin, Stéphane Derrey, Sophie Lesvèque, Sylvio Ramos, Olivier Langlois, Eléonore Tollard, Jacques Bénichou, Philippe Chassagne, Erick Clavier, and Pierre Fréger
The aim of the study was to assess postprocedural neurological deterioration and outcome in patients older than 70 years of age in whom treatment was managed in an interdisciplinary context.
This prospective longitudinal study included all patients 70 years of age or older treated for ruptured cerebral aneurysm over 10 years (June 1997–June 2007). The population was composed of 64 patients. The neurovascular interdisciplinary team jointly discussed the early obliteration procedure for each aneurysm. Neurological deterioration during the postprocedural 2 months and outcome at 6 months were assessed during consultation according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as follows: favorable (mRS score ≤ 2) and unfavorable (mRS score > 2).
Aneurysm sac obliteration was performed by microvascular clipping in 34 patients (53.1%) and by endovascular coiling in 30 (46.9%). Postprocedural neurological deterioration occurred in 30 patients (46.9%), related to ischemia in 19 (29.7%), rebleeding in 1 (1.6%), and hydrocephalus in 10 (15.6%). At 6 months, the outcome was favorable in 39 patients (60.9%). By multivariate regression logistic analysis, the independent factors associated with unfavorable outcome were age exceeding 75 years (p = 0.005), poor initial grade (p < 0.0001), and the occurrence of ischemia (p < 0.0001).
The baseline characteristics of SAH in the elderly were only slightly different from those in younger patients. In the elderly, the interdisciplinary approach may be considered useful to decrease the ischemic consequences.
François Proust, Olivier Martinaud, Emmanuel Gérardin, Stéphane Derrey, Sophie Levèque, Sandrine Bioux, Eléonore Tollard, Erick Clavier, Olivier Langlois, Olivier Godefroy, Didier Hannequin, and Pierre Fréger
For anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms, endovascular coil embolization constitutes a safe alternative therapeutic procedure to microsurgical clip occlusion. The authors' aim in this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL), cognitive function, and brain structure damage after the treatment of ruptured ACoA aneurysms in a group of patients who underwent microsurgical clipping (36 patients) compared with a reference group who underwent endovascular coiling (14 patients).
At 14 months posttreatment all patients underwent evaluations by independent observers. These observers evaluated global efficacy, executive functions using a frontal assessment battery of tests (Trail making test, Stroop tasks, dual task of Baddeley, verbal fluency, and Wisconsin Card Sorting test), behavior dysexecutive syndrome (the Inventaire du Syndrome Dysexécutif Comportemental questionnaire [ISDC]), and QOL by using the Reintegration To Normal Living Index. Brain damage was analyzed using MR imaging.
In the microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling groups, the distribution on the modified Rankin Scale (p = 0.19) and mean QOL score (85.4 vs 83.4, respectively) were similar. Moreover, the proportion of executive dysfunctions (19.4 vs 28.6%, respectively) and the mean score on the ISDC questionnaire (8.9 vs 8.5, respectively) were not significant, but verbal memory was more altered in the microsurgical clipping group (p = 0.055). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the incidence of local encephalomalacia and the median number of lesions per patient increased significantly in the microsurgical clipping group (p = 0.003).
In the 2 groups, no significant difference was observed regarding QOL, executive functions, and behavior. Despite the significant decrease in verbal memory after microsurgical clipping, the interdisciplinary approach remains a safe and useful strategy.