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  • Author or Editor: Fernando Viñuela x
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Guido Guglielmi, Fernando Viñuela, Jacques Dion and Gary Duckwiler

✓ Fifteen patients with high-risk intracranial saccular aneurysms were treated using electrolytically detachable coils introduced via an endovascular approach. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 69 years. The most frequent clinical presentation was subarachnoid hemorrhage (eight cases). Considerable thrombosis of the aneurysm (70% to 100%) was achieved in all 15 patients, and preservation of the parent artery was obtained in 14. Although temporary neurological deterioration due to the technique was recorded in one patient, no permanent neurological deficit was observed in this series and there were no deaths. It is believed that this new technology is a viable alternative in the management of patients with high-risk intracranial saccular aneurysms. It may also play an important role in the occlusion of aneurysms in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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Roberto C. Heros

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Fernando Viñuela, Gary Duckwiler and Michel Mawad

✓From December 1990 to July 1995, the investigators participated in a prospective clinical study to evaluate the safety of the Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) system for the treatment of aneurysms. This report summarizes the perioperative results from eight initial interventional neuroradiology centers in the United States. The report focuses on 403 patients who presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. These patients were treated within 15 days of the primary intracranial hemorrhage and were followed until they were discharged from the hospital or died.

Seventy percent of the patients were female and 30% were male. The patients' mean age was 58 years old. Aneurysm size was categorized as small (60.8%), large (34.7%), and giant (4.5%); and neck size was categorized as small (53.6%), wide (36.2%), fusiform (6%), and undetermined (4.2%). Fifty-seven percent of the aueurysms were located in the posterior circulation and 43% in the anterior circulation.

Eighty-two patients were classified as Hunt and Hess Grade I (20.3%), 105 Grade II (26.1%), 121 Grade III (30%), 69 Grade IV (17.1%), and 26 Grade V (6.5%). All patients in this study were excluded from surgical treatment either because of anticipated surgical difficulty (69.2%), attempted and failed surgery (12.7%), the patient's poor neurological (12.2%) or medical (4.7%) status, and/or refusal of surgery (1.2%).

The GDC embolization was performed within 48 hours of primary hemorrhage in 147 patients (36.5%), within 3 to 6 days in 156 patients (38.7%), 7 to 10 days in 71 patients (17.6%), and 11 to 15 days in 29 patients (7.2%). Complete aneurysm occlusion was observed in 70.8% of small aneurysms with a small neck, 35% of large aneurysms, and 50% of giant aneurysms. A small neck remnant was observed in 21.4% of small aneurysms with a small neck, 57.1% of large aneurysms, and 50% of giant aneurysms. Technical complications included aneurysm perforation (2.7%), unintentional parent artery occlusion (3%), and untoward cerebral embolization (2.48%). There was a 8.9% immediate morbidity rate related to the GDC technique. Seven deaths were related lo technical complications (1.74%) and 18 (4.47%) to the severity of the primary hemorrhage.

The findings of this study demonstrate the safety of the GDC system for the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in anterior and posterior circulations. The authors believe additional randomized studies will further identify the role of this technique in the management of acutely ruptured incranial aneurysms.

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Fernando Viñuela, Gary Duckwiler and Michel Mawad

✓ From December 1990 to July 1995, the investigators participated in a prospective clinical study to evaluate the safety of the Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) system for the treatment of aneurysms. This report summarizes the perioperative results from eight initial interventional neuroradiology centers in the United States. The report focuses on 403 patients who presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. These patients were treated within 15 days of the primary intracranial hemorrhage and were followed until they were discharged from the hospital or died.

Seventy percent of the patients were female and 30% were male. The patients' mean age was 58 years old. Aneurysm size was categorized as small (60.8%), large (34.7%), and giant (4.5%); and neck size was categorized as small (53.6%), wide (36.2%), fusiform (6%), and undetermined (4.2%). Fifty-seven percent of the aneurysms were located in the posterior circulation and 43% in the anterior circulation.

Eighty-two patients were classified as Hunt and Hess Grade I (20.3%), 105 Grade II (26.1%), 121 Grade III (30%), 69 Grade IV (17.1%), and 26 Grade V (6.5%). All patients in this study were excluded from surgical treatment either because of anticipated surgical difficulty (69.2%), attempted and failed surgery (12.7%), the patient's poor neurological (12.2%) or medical (4.7%) status, and/or refusal of surgery (1.2%).

The GDC embolization was performed within 48 hours of primary hemorrhage in 147 patients (36.5%), within 3 to 6 days in 156 patients (38.7%), 7 to 10 days in 71 patients (17.6%), and 11 to 15 days in 29 patients (7.2%). Complete aneurysm occlusion was observed in 70.8% of small aneurysms with a small neck, 35% of large aneurysms, and 50% of giant aneurysms. A small neck remnant was observed in 21.4% of small aneurysms with a small neck, 57.1% of large aneurysms, and 50% of giant aneurysms. Technical complications included aneurysm perforation (2.7%), unintentional parent artery occlusion (3%), and untoward cerebral embolization (2.48%). There was a 8.9% immediate morbidity rate related to the GDC technique. Seven deaths were related to technical complications (1.74%) and 18 (4.47%) to the severity of the primary hemorrhage.

The findings of this study demonstrate the safety of the GDC system for the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in anterior and posterior circulations. The authors believe additional randomized studies will further identify the role of this technique in the management of acutely ruptured incranial aneurysms.

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Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms via endovascular approach

Part 1: Electrochemical basis, technique, and experimental results

Guido Guglielmi, Fernando Viñuela, Ivan Sepetka and Velio Macellari

✓ Eleven experimental saccular aneurysms were created on the common carotid artery of swine. Between 3 and 15 days after creation of these aneurysms, they were thrombosed via an endovascular approach, using a very soft detachable platinum coil delivered through a microcatheter positioned within the aneurysm. This detachable platinum coil was soldered to a stainless steel delivery guidewire. Intra-aneurysmal thrombosis was then initiated by applying a low positive direct electric current to the delivery guidewire. Thrombosis occurred because of the attraction of negatively charged white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, and fibrinogen to the positively charged platinum coil positioned within the aneurysm. The passage of electric current detached the platinum coil within the clotted aneurysm in 4 to 12 minutes. This detachment was elicited by electrolysis of the stainless steel wire nearest to the thrombus-covered platinum coil. Control angiograms obtained 2 to 6 months postembolization confirmed permanent aneurysm occlusion as well as patency of the parent artery in all cases. No angiographic manifestation of untoward distal embolization was noted. Due to the encouraging results of this research, this technique has been applied in selected clinical cases which are described in Part 2 of this study.

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Ichiro Yuki, Yuichi Murayama and Fernando Viñuela

Object. The authors report on a series of 29 patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) related to the rupture of a vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysm. Special attention was focused on embolization techniques and immediate and midterm anatomical and clinical outcomes.

Methods. Between March 1994 and January 2003, 29 patients presented with acute SAH caused by the rupture of a vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysm. Eleven patients (37.9%) had Hunt and Hess Grade I SAH, four (13.8%) Grade II, six (20.7%) Grade III, five (17.2%) Grade IV, and three (10.3%) Grade V. Aneurysms were classified into five groups based on lesion location, and treatment courses were decided. All patients except two were treated by endovascular trapping of the aneurysm with concomitant occlusion of the involved vertebral artery (VA). No technical or clinical complication was observed in 28 patients (97%). Aneurysm perforation occurred during the procedure in one patient (3%). There was evidence of aneurysm recanalization in one patient. One patient with Hunt and Hess Grade IV SAH and two patients with Grade V SAH died. One patient died of respiratory infection 1 year after aneurysm trapping. One patient presented with a recurrent hemorrhage 1 month after treatment and died. Overall morbidity and mortality rates were 13.8 and 17.2%, respectively.

Conclusions. Twenty-nine patients with acute SAH due to rupturing of vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysms were treated using endovascular techniques. In most cases, endovascular trapping of the aneurysm and concomitant occlusion of the VA was technically and clinically successful.

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Matthew F. Omojola, Allan J. Fox, Fernando V. Viñuela and Charles G. Drake

✓ This is a report of spontaneous regression of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) in three female patients; two of these patients had complete angiographic disappearance of the AVM, including an instance of intimate association of the AVM with an astrocytoma. The AVM's in these two patients were unicompartmental medium- to large-sized lesions supplied by a single feeder and draining principally through one large vein; spontaneous thrombosis is suggested as a cause of the AVM regression. Partial regression in the third patient might have been partially due to embolism from a clot-filled aneurysm on the feeding vessel. The significance of such disappearance of AVM's in relation to persistence or otherwise of the neurological status of these patients is discussed.

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Fernando V. Viñuela, Gerard M. Debrun, Allan J. Fox and Shinichi Kan

✓ The authors describe a system comprising a small latex balloon attached to a Teflon catheter. The balloon has a distal calibrated leak which is used for intravascular embolization with isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The balloon is easily detached after embolization. The combination of manual control of the balloon-catheter system, plus the ability of the balloon to navigate intra-arterially with the blood flow, makes this system suitable for superselective angiography and embolization of lesions supplied by the external carotid artery (ECA). This system avoids intimal dissection and concomitant arterial vasospasm when trying to negotiate steep distal curves of the ECA branches. Experimental embolization of several branches of the ECA in the dog, and clinical examples of treatment of dural arteriovenous malformations in three patients are described.