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Jean G. de Oliveira, Richard Gonzalo Párraga, Feres Chaddad-Neto, Guilherme Carvalhal Ribas and Evandro P. L. de Oliveira

Object

The aim of this study was to describe the surgical anatomy of the mediobasal aspect of the temporal lobe and the supracerebellar transtentorial (SCTT) approach performed not with an opening, but with the resection of the tentorium, as an alternative route for the neurosurgical management of vascular and tumoral lesions arising from this region.

Methods

Cadaveric specimens were used to illustrate the surgical anatomy of the mediobasal region of the temporal lobe. Demographic aspects, characteristics of lesions, clinical presentation, surgical results, follow-up findings, and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed for patients referred to receive the SCTT approach with tentorial resection.

Results

Ten patients (83%) were female and 2 (17%) were male. Their ages ranged from 6 to 59 years (mean 34.5 ± 15.8 years). All lesions (3 posterior cerebral artery aneurysms, 3 arteriovenous malformations, 3 cavernous malformations, and 3 tumors) were completely excluded or resected. After a mean follow-up period of 143 months (range 10–240 months), the mean postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4.9.

Conclusions

Knowledge of the surgical anatomy provides improvement for microsurgical approaches. The evolution from a small opening to a resection of the tentorium absolutely changed the exposure of the mediobasal aspect of the temporal lobe. The SCTT approach with tentorial resection is an excellent alternative route to the posterior part of mediobasal aspect of the temporal lobe, and it was enough to achieve the best neurosurgical management of tumoral and vascular lesions located in this area.

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Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Bruno Fernandes de O. Santos, Felipe Bouchabki de Almeida Guardini and Feres Chaddad-Neto

The management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the corpus callosum and choroidal fissure is challenging because they commonly receive arterial feeders from the anterior and posterior circulation, and drain to deep veins. In this video the authors present the case of a 20-year-old man who presented with acute onset of headache, loss of consciousness, and nuchal rigidity. Computed tomography, MRI, and cerebral angiography performed in tandem revealed a ruptured, large, Grade IV AVM of the corpus callosum and choroidal fissure with two groups of arterial feeders: one from the pericallosal artery and the other from the medial and lateral posterior choroidal arteries. The treatment strategy included two stages. The first stage involved preoperative embolization of the arterial feeders from the posterior circulation, which promoted reduction of the nidus flow of the AVM. The second involved a microsurgical resection, using the interhemispheric approach, with the patient in the prone position, which allowed accessing the anterior circulation feeders and the complete resection of the AVM, without associated morbidity.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/5wcYKhcJtls.

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Feres Chaddad-Neto, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Baran Bozkurt, Hugo Leonardo Doria-Netto, Daniel de Araujo Paz, Ricardo da Silva Centeno, Andrew W. Grande, Sergio Cavalheiro, Kaan Yağmurlu, Robert F. Spetzler and Mark C. Preul

OBJECTIVE

The authors report a novel surgical route from a superior anatomical aspect—the contralateral anterior interhemispheric-transcallosal-transrostral approach—to a lesion located in the subcallosal region. The neurosurgical approach to the subcallosal region is challenging due to its deep location and close relationship with important vascular structures. Anterior and inferior routes to the subcallosal region have been described but risk damaging the branches of the anterior cerebral artery.

METHODS

Three formalin-fixed and silicone-injected adult cadaveric heads were studied to demonstrate the relationships between the transventricular surgical approach and the subcallosal region. The surgical, clinical, and radiological history of a 39-year-old man with a subcallosal cavernous malformation was retrospectively used to document the neurological examination and radiographic parameters of such a case.

RESULTS

The contralateral anterior interhemispheric-transcallosal-transrostral approach provides access to the subcallosal area that also includes the inferior portion of the pericallosal cistern, lamina terminalis cistern, the paraterminal and paraolfactory gyri, and the anterior surface of the optic chiasm. The approach avoids the neurocritical perforating branches of the anterior communicating artery.

CONCLUSIONS

The contralateral anterior interhemispheric-transcallosal-transrostral approach may be an alternative route to subcallosal area lesions, with less risk to the branches of the anterior cerebral artery, particularly the anterior communicating artery perforators.

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Daniela de Souza Coelho, Bruno Fernandes de Oliveira Santos, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Gisele Sampaio Silva, Sergio Cavalheiro, Flávia H. Santos and Feres Chaddad-Neto

OBJECTIVE

A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cAVM) can change over time and cause symptoms, but clinical studies tend to define only the patients with ruptured cAVMs as symptomatic and do not consider neurocognitive aspects prior to neurosurgical intervention. The objective of this study was to describe the neurocognitive function of patients with ruptured and unruptured cAVMs according to the Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade, flow status, and anatomical topography.

METHODS

In this blinded cross-sectional study, 70 patients of both sexes and ages 18–60 years were evaluated using the Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Neupsilin.

RESULTS

Of the 70 patients with cAVMs, 50 (71.4%) demonstrated deficits in at least one of the eight neurocognitive domains surveyed, although they did not exhibit neurological deficits. cAVMs in the temporal lobe were associated with memory deficits compared with the general population. The SM grade was not significantly associated with the results of patients with unruptured cAVMs. However, among patients with ruptured cAVMs, there were deficits in working memory in those with high-grade (SM grade) cAVMs and deficits in executive function (verbal fluency) in those with low-grade cAVMs (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

This study indicates that patients with untreated cAVMs, either ruptured or unruptured, already exhibit neurocognitive deficits, even the patients without other neurological symptoms. However, the scales used to evaluate disability in the main clinical studies, such as A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA), do not assess neurocognitive alterations and therefore disregard any deficits that may affect quality of life. The authors’ finding raises an important question about the effects of interventional treatment because it reinforces the hypothesis that cognitive alterations may be preexisting and not determined by interventions.