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Editorial: Endovascular stroke therapy

Felipe C. Albuquerque

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Editorial: Computed tomography perfusion

Felipe C. Albuquerque

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Editorial: Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound

Felipe C. Albuquerque

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Endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms

Felipe C. Albuquerque

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Balloon-assisted Onyx embolization of cerebral single-channel pial arteriovenous fistulas

Technical note

C. Benjamin Newman, Yin C. Hu, Cameron G. McDougall, and Felipe C. Albuquerque

Object

Pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) of the brain are rare vascular malformations associated with significant risks of hemorrhage and neurological deficit. Depending on their location and high-flow dynamics, these lesions can present treatment challenges for both endovascular and open cerebrovascular surgeons. The authors describe a novel endovascular treatment strategy that was used successfully to treat 2 pediatric patients with a pial AVF, and they discuss the technical nuances specific to their treatment strategy.

Methods

A single-channel high-flow pial AVF was diagnosed in 2 male patients (6 and 17 years of age). Both patients were treated with endovascular flow arrest using a highly conformable balloon followed by Onyx infusion for definitive closure of the fistula.

Results

Neither patient suffered a complication as a result of the procedure. At the 6-month follow-up in both cases, the simple discontinuation of blood flow had resulted in durable obliteration of the fistula and stable or improved neurological function.

Conclusions

Onyx can be delivered successfully into high-flow lesions after flow arrest to allow a minimally invasive and durable treatment for pial AVFs.

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Letter to the Editor: Chiropractor and dissections

Michael J. Schneider

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Introduction to the supratentorial cerebral arteriovenous malformation video supplement

Robert M. Starke, Felipe C. Albuquerque, and Michael T. Lawton

It is with great pleasure that we present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on supratentorial cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We were privileged to view a remarkable number of outstanding videos demonstrating current state-of-the-art management of brain AVMs using endovascular and microsurgical modalities. Careful and critical review was required to narrow down the submitted videos to a workable volume for this supplement, which reflects the excellent work being done at multiple centers with these lesions.

This issue consists of videos that represent modern microsurgical and neuroendovascular techniques for the treatment of supratentorial cerebral AVMs. The videos demonstrate cutting-edge therapies as well as standard ones, which will be valuable to both novice and expert neurointerventionists and neurosurgeons. We are honored to be involved with this project and proud of its content and expert authors. We believe you will enjoy the video content of this supplement and hope that it will raise the collective expertise of our community of AVM surgeons.

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Combined surgical and endovascular treatment of a recurrent A3–A3 junction aneurysm unsuitable for standalone clip ligation or coil occlusion

Technical note

Louis J. Kim, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Cameron McDougall, and Robert F. Spetzler

Recurrent aneurysms of the anterior circulation that are distal to the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) but proximal to the callosomarginal–pericallosal bifurcation can pose a treatment challenge. The authors present one such case, in which the patient was treated with pericallosal artery–pericallosal artery (PerA–PerA) side-to-side bypass, followed by endovascular obliteration of the proximal A2 parent vessel. This patient, in whom an ACoA aneurysm had been treated with clip ligation 5 years previously, presented with a new, mid-A2, right-sided aneurysm with the out-flow artery arising from the dome of the lesion.

The treatment plan included two steps: an interhemispheric transcallosal approach for PerA–PerA side-to-side anastomosis; and endovascular coil embolization of the right A2 branch feeding the aneurysm. Postprocedure angiography demonstrated no ipsilateral aneurysm filling and excellent bilateral distal outflow from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA).

The use of PerA–PerA side-to-side bypass for the treatment of an ACA aneurysm, followed by parent vessel occlusion, offers an elegant solution for the treatment of A2 aneurysms that are not amenable to stand-alone clip ligation or coil occlusion. Such combined methods are invaluable in the management of complex cerebral aneurysms.

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Arachnoid cysts: spontaneous resolution distinct from traumatic rupture

Case report

Ruth E. Bristol, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Cameron McDougall, and Robert F. Spetzler

✓Although many arachnoid cysts are discovered incidentally and require no intervention, a small subset has been known to rupture. Note that rupture can occur either spontaneously or in association with trauma. Based on a review of the literature on ruptured arachnoid cysts, it appears that patients with middle fossa cysts are more likely to experience symptomatic traumatic rupture than those with cysts in other locations. Middle fossa cysts are more commonly associated with hemispheric subdural collections and hematomas than are any other cysts. The authors report on two representative cases illustrating the distinct presentation, imaging characteristics, and management of these cysts.

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The evolution of endovascular treatment for intracranial arteriovenous malformations

Ruth E. Bristol, Felipe C. Albuquerque, and Cameron G. McDougall

✓ Endovascular therapy for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains a relatively new approach. Beginning in the 1960s with the use of flow-directed techniques for selective embolization, hemodynamic alterations have been used to treat these lesions. In every aspect of treatment, technological advances, including catheters, embolic materials, angiography suites, and pharmacological agents, have improved outcomes while lowering the risk to patients.

In this article, the authors review the technical evolution of endovascular AVM therapy. Developments in embolic materials, beginning with foreign bodies and autografts and continuing through to highly engineered contemporary substances, are discussed. Finally, changes in treatment paradigms that have occurred over the years are traced. Within neurosurgery, this specialty has shown some of the fastest growth and development in recent decades. As minimally invasive approaches are embraced in all areas of medicine, it is clear that this treatment modality will continue to be refined.