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Farideh Nejat and Syed Shuja Kazmi

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Farideh Nejat and Behzad Eftekhar

✓ This 9-year-old girl with rapidly progressive cerebral demyelinating disease presented with hemiplegia and intracranial hypertension. Brain images revealed four lesions with mass effect in the subcortical white matter of both hemispheres. Demyelination was found on pathological studies of these lesions. The patient experienced some recovery with corticosteroid treatment but improved completely with decompressive aspiration of the largest lesion.

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Thomas Pittman

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Farideh Nejat and Mostafa El Khashab

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Saeed Ansari, Majid Dadmehr and Farideh Nejat

✓ Occipital dermal sinuses (ODSs) are congenital lesions located in the midline and characterized by a cutaneous pit or dimple. The intracranial extension as well as the associated symptoms are variable. To date, a familial occurrence of these lesions has not been reported. In this paper the authors report on a 2-year-old boy with an ODS and intracranial hypertension. The boy’s mother had a similar lesion but did not have any complaints. Following their experience with this case and a literature review, the authors suggest that there may be a genetic basis in certain instances of ODS.

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Farid Radmanesh, Farideh Nejat and Maryam Monajemzadeh

✓Encephalocele is a cystic congenital malformation in which central nervous system structures herniate through a defect in the cranium. The coincidence of encephalocele and neoplasm is a very rare condition. The authors present the case of a 5-month-old girl who underwent surgery for encephalocele and whose postoperative histopathological assessment revealed evidence of a mature teratoma inside the lesion. The embryogenesis of such a lesion is discussed.

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James T. Goodrich

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Double spinal dysraphism

Report of three cases

Sepideh Keshavarzi, Farideh Nejat and Hadi Kazemi

✓The simultaneous presence of multiple spinal neural tube defects is unusual. There have been only a few of these cases reported in the literature. The authors report on three cases of double spina bifida cystica. One patient had two myelomeningoceles (MMCs) at the cervical and lumbosacral regions, one was noted to have both thoracolumbar and sacral defects, and the third presented with double MMCs at lumbar and lumbosacral levels. All three neonates in these cases underwent surgical treatment and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion for associated hydrocephalus. One child died at the age of 2 months despite a well-functioning VP shunt. The other two patients had no complications. Current models of neural tube closure do not thoroughly explain the mechanisms of multiple spinal dysraphism, but the multisite closure model provides a better understanding of caudal neural tube closure than other closure-site models.

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Saeed Ansari, Farideh Nejat, Shahrooz Yazdani and Majid Dadmehr


The coexistence of split cord malformations (SCMs) and myelomeningoceles (MMCs) can be misdiagnosed or ignored and can cause spinal cord tethering. The authors investigated cases involving the coexistence of SCMs and MMCs in patients from the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Tehran.


Of the 330 patients with MMCs who underwent operations at the Children's Hospital Medical Center between January 2001 and June 2005, 33 (10%) had an associated SCM. These 33 cases were retrospectively reviewed.


Eighteen patients (55%) were female, and the mean age of the patients at presentation was 2.9 months. In 17 of the 33 patients, the SCM occurred at the level of the neural placode. A Type I SCM was found in 26 children. Two patients had hypertrichosis. Eight patients had unilateral leg paresis. The MMC sac was located in the lumbar region in 14 cases. Two patients had double spinal dysraphism with meningoceles at the thoracic level. All patients underwent simultaneous repair of both lesions at the time of surgery.


Patients with MMCs, especially those with unusual manifestations such as unilateral paresis or skin lesions, should undergo a preoperative clinical examination to check for the presence of an SCM. Use of spinal magnetic resonance imaging can help in identifying the associated abnormalities. The neural placode and the rostral and caudal spinal cord segments should be carefully inspected for dysraphic lesions such as SCMs during the operation to repair the MMC. In this paper, the authors hope to show the wisdom of identifying these anomalies at the time of the initial repair of the MMC.