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Farideh Nejat and Syed Shuja Kazmi

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Farideh Nejat and Behzad Eftekhar

✓ This 9-year-old girl with rapidly progressive cerebral demyelinating disease presented with hemiplegia and intracranial hypertension. Brain images revealed four lesions with mass effect in the subcortical white matter of both hemispheres. Demyelination was found on pathological studies of these lesions. The patient experienced some recovery with corticosteroid treatment but improved completely with decompressive aspiration of the largest lesion.

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Ghazaleh Kheiri, Negin Naderian, Sajedeh Karami, Zohreh Habibi, and Farideh Nejat


Prenatal ventriculomegaly is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the atrium diameter. The natural course and intrauterine progression of mild and moderate ventriculomegaly associated with the neurodevelopmental status of these children has been widely reported.


One hundred twenty-two pregnancies with mild and moderate ventriculomegaly referred to the pediatric neurosurgery clinic of Children’s Medical Center between 2010 and 2018 were retrospectively studied. The authors collected demographic and first and sequential ultrasonographic information, associated abnormalities, information about pregnancy outcomes, and the latest developmental status of these children according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria by calling parents at least 1 year after birth.


The mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 29.1 weeks, and 53% of fetuses were female. The width of the atrium was registered precisely in 106 cases, in which 61% had mild and 39% had moderate ventriculomegaly. Information on serial ultrasound scans was collected in 84 cases in which ventriculomegaly regressed in 5, remained stable in 67, and progressed in 12 patients. Fourteen cases (29.7%) in the mild ventriculomegaly group and 6 cases (16.2%) in the moderate group had associated abnormalities, with corpus callosum agenesis as the most frequent abnormality. The survival rate was 80% in mild and 89.4% in moderate ventriculomegaly. Considering survival to live birth and progression of the ventriculomegaly, the survival rate was 100% in regressed, 97% in stable, and 41.6% in progressed ventricular width groups (p < 0.001). Neurodevelopmental status was evaluated in 73 cases and found to be normal in 69.8% of the cases; 16.4% of children had mild delay, and 5.4% and 8.2% of cases were diagnosed with moderate and severe delays, respectively.


In spite of a high rate of missed data in our retrospective study, most patients with mild or moderate ventriculomegaly had a stable or regressed course. Most cases had near-normal developmental status. Prospective studies with a larger sample size and detailed developmental evaluation tests are needed to answer the questions related to the natural course, survival, and prognosis of prenatal ventriculomegaly.

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James T. Goodrich

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Saeed Ansari, Majid Dadmehr, and Farideh Nejat

✓ Occipital dermal sinuses (ODSs) are congenital lesions located in the midline and characterized by a cutaneous pit or dimple. The intracranial extension as well as the associated symptoms are variable. To date, a familial occurrence of these lesions has not been reported. In this paper the authors report on a 2-year-old boy with an ODS and intracranial hypertension. The boy’s mother had a similar lesion but did not have any complaints. Following their experience with this case and a literature review, the authors suggest that there may be a genetic basis in certain instances of ODS.

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Farid Radmanesh, Farideh Nejat, and Maryam Monajemzadeh

✓Encephalocele is a cystic congenital malformation in which central nervous system structures herniate through a defect in the cranium. The coincidence of encephalocele and neoplasm is a very rare condition. The authors present the case of a 5-month-old girl who underwent surgery for encephalocele and whose postoperative histopathological assessment revealed evidence of a mature teratoma inside the lesion. The embryogenesis of such a lesion is discussed.

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Farideh Nejat and Mostafa El Khashab

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Thomas Pittman

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Mahdi Arjipour, Farideh Nejat, and Zohreh Habibi

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Double spinal dysraphism

Report of three cases

Sepideh Keshavarzi, Farideh Nejat, and Hadi Kazemi

✓The simultaneous presence of multiple spinal neural tube defects is unusual. There have been only a few of these cases reported in the literature. The authors report on three cases of double spina bifida cystica. One patient had two myelomeningoceles (MMCs) at the cervical and lumbosacral regions, one was noted to have both thoracolumbar and sacral defects, and the third presented with double MMCs at lumbar and lumbosacral levels. All three neonates in these cases underwent surgical treatment and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion for associated hydrocephalus. One child died at the age of 2 months despite a well-functioning VP shunt. The other two patients had no complications. Current models of neural tube closure do not thoroughly explain the mechanisms of multiple spinal dysraphism, but the multisite closure model provides a better understanding of caudal neural tube closure than other closure-site models.