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João Vitor Gerdulli Tamanini, Mateus Dal Fabbro, Leandro Luiz Lopes de Freitas, José Vassallo, Luciano de Souza Queiroz, and Fabio Rogerio

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to evaluate clinical and laboratory data from pituitary adenoma (PA) patients with functioning PA (associated with acromegaly [n = 10] or Cushing disease [n = 10]) or nonfunctioning PA (NFPA; n = 10) that were classified according to 2017 WHO criteria (based on the expression of the transcription factors pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 [Pit-1], a transcription factor member of the T-box family [Tpit], and steroidogenic factor 1 [SF-1]) and to assess the immunostaining results for growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the corresponding tumors.

METHODS

Clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively. The percentage of tumoral cells positive for Pit-1, Tpit, or SF-1 was assessed and ImageJ software was used to evaluate immunopositivity in PAs with 2 different antibodies against GH (primary antibody 1 [AbGH-1] and primary antibody 2 [AbGH-2]) and 2 different antibodies against ACTH (primary antibody 1 [AbACTH-1] and primary antibody 2 [AbACTH-2]).

RESULTS

Cells with positive Pit-1 staining were more frequently observed in lesions from patients with acromegaly (acromegaly group) than in lesions from patients with Cushing disease (Cushing group; p < 0.001) and those from patients with NFPA (NFPA group; p < 0.001). The percentage of Tpit-positive cells was higher in the Cushing group than in the acromegaly (p < 0.001) and NFPA (p < 0.001) groups. No difference was detected regarding SF-1 frequency among all groups (p = 0.855). In acromegalic individuals, GH immunostaining levels varied depending on the antibody employed, and only one of the antibodies (AbGH-2) yielded higher values in comparison with the values for NFPA patients (p < 0.001). For all of the antibodies employed, no significant correlations were detected between GH tissue expression and the laboratory data (serum GH vs AbGH-1, p = 0.933; serum GH vs AbGH-2, p = 0.853; serum insulin-like growth factor–1 [IGF-1] vs AbGH-1, p = 0.407; serum IGF-1 vs AbGH-2, p = 0.881). In the Cushing group data, both antibodies showed similar ACTH tissue expression, which was higher than that obtained in the NFPA group (p < 0.001). There were no significant associations between ACTH immunohistochemical findings and ACTH serum levels (serum ACTH vs AbACTH-1, p = 0.651; serum ACTH vs AbACTH-2, p = 0.987). However, ACTH immunostaining evaluated with AbACTH-1 showed a significant correlation with 24-hour urinary cortisol (24-hour cortisol vs AbACTH-1, p = 0.047; 24-hour cortisol vs AbACTH-2, p = 0.071).

CONCLUSIONS

Immunostaining for Pit-1 and Tpit accurately identified lesions associated with acromegaly and Cushing disease, respectively. Conversely, SF-1 did not differentiate NFPA from lesions of the other two groups. Regarding hormonal tissue detection, results of the current investigation indicate that different antibodies may lead not only to divergent immunohistochemical results but also to lack of correlation with laboratory findings. Finally, PA classification based on transcription factor expression (Pit-1, Tpit, and SF-1), as proposed by the 2017 WHO classification of pituitary tumors, may avoid the limitations of PA classification based solely on digital immunohistochemical detection of hormones.

Free access

João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Gabriel Ayub, Mateus Nogueira, Tamires Zanao, Tátila Martins Lopes, Luciana Ramalho Pimentel-Silva, Vinicius Domene, Gabriel Marquez, Clarissa Lin Yasuda, Letícia Franceschet Ribeiro, Brunno M. Campos, José Vasconcellos, Fabio Rogerio, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim, Fernando Cendes, Helder Tedeschi, and Enrico Ghizoni

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a modified surgical approach for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). This modified approach, called temporopolar amygdalohippocampectomy (TP-AH), includes a transsylvian resection of the temporal pole and subsequent amygdalohippocampectomy utilizing the limen insula as an anatomical landmark.

METHODS

A total of 61 patients who were diagnosed with HS and underwent TP-AH between 2013 and 2017 were enrolled. Patients performed pre- and postoperative diffusion tensor imaging and were classified according to Engel’s scale for seizure control. To evaluate the functional preservation of the temporal stem white-matter fiber tracts, the authors analyzed postoperative Humphrey perimetries and pre- and postoperative neurocognitive performance (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT], Weschler Memory Scale–Revised [WMS-R], intelligence quotient [IQ], Boston Naming Test [BNT], and semantic and phonemic fluency). Demographic data and surgical complications were also recorded and described.

RESULTS

After a median follow-up of 36 ± 16 months, 46 patients (75.4%) achieved Engel class I, of whom 37 (60.6%) were Engel class IA. No significant changes in either the inferior frontooccipital fasciculus and optic radiation tractography were observed postoperatively for both left- and right-side surgeries. Reliable perimetry was obtained in 40 patients (65.6%), of whom 27 (67.5%) did not present any visual field defects (VFDs) attributable to surgery, while 12 patients (30%) presented with quadrant VFD, and 1 patient (2.5%) presented with hemifield VFD. Despite a significant decline in verbal memory (p = 0.007 for WMS-R, p = 0.02 for RAVLT recognition), there were significant improvements in both IQ (p < 0.001) and visual memory (p = 0.007). Semantic and phonemic fluency, and scores on the BNT, did not change postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

TP-AH provided seizure control similar to historical temporal lobe approaches, with a tendency to preserve the temporal stem and a satisfactory incidence of VFD. Despite a significant decline in verbal memory, there were significant improvements in both IQ and visual memory, along with preservation of executive function. This approach can be considered a natural evolution of the selective transsylvian approach.