✓Ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are potentially dangerous lesions because of the high risk of intraoperative bleeding associated with their wide fragile neck. The authors discuss cases in which BBAs were treated endovascularly during the chronic stage and report a case in which a ruptured BBA of the ICA was successfully treated in the acute phase with stent-assisted coil embolization and a subsequent stent-within-a-stent procedure.
Byung Moon Kim, Eun Chul Chung, Sung Il Park, Chun Sik Choi and Yu Sam Won
Jung Ho Han, Dong Gyu Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Chul-Kee Park, Sun Ha Paek, Jeong Eun Kim, Hee-Won Jung and Dae Hee Han
In this paper the authors analyzed the clinical and neuroimaging outcomes of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), focusing on the analysis of the radiation injury rate depending on the AVM volume.
Between 1997 and 2004, 277 consecutive patients with cerebral AVMs were treated with GKS. Of these patients, 218 were followed up for ≥ 2 years. The mean age was 31 ± 15 years, the median AVM volume was 3.4 cm3 (range 0.17–35.2 cm3), the median marginal dose was 18.0 Gy (range 10.0–25.0 Gy), and the mean follow-up duration was 44 ± 20 months. The authors reduced the prescription dose by various amounts, depending on the AVM volume and location as prescribed in the classic guideline to avoid irreversible radiation injuries.
The angiographic obliteration rate was 66.4% overall, and it was 81.7, 53.1, and 12.5% for small, medium, and large AVMs, respectively. The overall annual bleeding rate was 1.9%. The annual bleeding rate was 0.44 and 4.64% for small and large AVMs, respectively. Approximately 20% of the patients showed severe postradiosurgery imaging (PRI) changes. The rate of PRI change was 11.4, 33.3, and 9.5% for small, medium, and large AVM volume groups, respectively, and a permanent radiation injury developed in 5.1% of patients.
By using the reduced dose from what is usually prescribed, the authors were able to obtain outcomes in small AVMs that were comparable to the outcomes described in previous reports. However, medium AVMs appear to still be at risk for adverse radiation effects. Last, in large AVMs, the authors were able to attain a tolerable rate of radiation injury; however, the clinical outcomes were quite disappointing following administration of a reduced dose of GKS for large AVMs.
Byung-Hee Lee, Byung Moon Kim, Moon Sun Park, Sung Il Park, Eun Chul Chung, Sang Hyun Suh, Chun Sik Choi, Yu Sam Won and In Kyu Yu
Ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare but carry a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, BBAs are very difficult to treat surgically as well as endovascularly. The authors present their experience in treating BBAs with reconstructive endovascular methods.
Nine ruptured BBAs in 9 consecutive patients (2 men and 7 women; mean age 50 years, range 42–57 years) were treated using reconstructive endovascular methods between January 2006 and November 2007. Treatment methods and angiographic and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated.
All 9 BBAs were initially treated with stent-assisted coil (SAC) embolization. This was followed by a second stent insertion using the stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique in 3, covered stent placement in 3, and SAC embolization alone in 3. All 3 patients who underwent SWS placement had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) with complete angiographic resolution of the BBAs. There were no treatment-related complications in the SWS group. Two of the 3 patients who received covered stents had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) and complete occlusion of the BBA was achieved. The remaining patient who received a covered stent died of ICA rupture during the procedure. Aneurysm regrowth without rebleeding occurred in the 3 patients who underwent SAC embolization. Two of the 3 recurrent BBAs were treated with coil embolization with a second stent insertion, and as a result these belonged to the SWS group. The other recurrent BBA was treated with a covered stent. Of the 8 surviving patients, 5 underwent SWS, and 3 underwent covered stent placement. All surviving patients had excellent outcomes during the clinical follow-up period (mean 11 months, range 4–26 months); complete BBA resolution and smooth reconstruction of the affected ICA segment was shown on follow-up angiography.
In the present study, the SWS and covered-stent techniques effectively prevented rebleeding and regrowth of the BBA without sacrifice of the ICA. The SWS and covered-stent techniques can be considered an alternative treatment option for BBAs in selected patients in whom ICA sacrifice is not feasible. Stent-assisted coiling alone seems insufficient to prevent BBA regrowth.
Jin Pyeong Jeon, Jeong Eun Kim, Jun Hyong Ahn, Won-Sang Cho, Young Dae Cho, Young-Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Ho Sohn, Hyun-Tai Chung, Chang Wan Oh and Dong Gyu Kim
Treatment strategies for venous-predominant arteriovenous malformation (vp-AVM) remain unclear due to the limited number of cases and a lack of long-term outcomes. The purpose of this study was to report the authors’ experience with treatment outcomes with a review of the pertinent literature in patients with vp-AVM.
Medical and radiological data from 1998 to 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The degree of the arteriovenous (AV) shunt was categorized into 2 groups, a high- and low-flow AV shunt based on the angiographic findings.
Sixteen patients with a mean age of 45.3 years (range 16–78 years) and a mean follow-up of 79.9 months (range 25–264 months) were examined. Symptomatic lesions were noted in 13 patients: intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 9, seizure in 1, and headache in 3. A high-flow shunt was observed on angiography in 13 patients. Among these 13 patients, 12 patients were symptomatic. Nine patients presenting with ICH underwent hematoma removal with additional Gamma Knife surgery (GKS; n = 4), GKS only (n = 2), or conservative treatment (n = 3). The 3 asymptomatic patients received conservative treatment, and 1 rebleeding episode was observed. Seven of 8 patients who underwent GKS as an initial or secondary treatment modality experienced a marked reduction in the AV shunt on follow-up angiography, but complete obliteration was not observed.
Poor lesion localization makes a vp-AVM challenging to treat. Symptomatic patients with a high-flow shunt are supposedly best treated with GKS, despite the fact that only 87.5% of the vp-AVMs treated this way showed a reduction in the malformation volume, and none were cured.
Joon K. Song, Joseph M. Eskridge, Eun-Chul Chung, Lindsey C. Blake, J. Paul Elliott, Lisa Finch, Cyrus Niakan, Kenneth R. Maravilla and H. Richard Winn
Object. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and clinical significance of complications related to preoperative embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with silk sutures as documented on postprocedure computerized tomography (CT) scans.
Methods. The CT scans were obtained within 12 to 24 hours after 221 (96%) of 230 consecutive embolizations in 70 patients. These CT scans were evaluated for the presence of ischemia, infarction, hemorrhage, or contrast agent extravasation. Adverse patient outcomes were determined after each embolization and were correlated with CT findings. New abnormalities demonstrated on CT scans were also correlated with the Spetzler—Martin AVM grade, degree of arteriovenous shunting, and location. New abnormalities, the majority of them infarcts, resulted from 29 (13%) of 221 embolization procedures. In 11 (38%) of 29 cases of new CT findings, patients were asymptomatic, including 10 with new infarcts on CT scans. New neurological deficits occurred in 20 (8.7%) of 230 total embolization procedures in 19 patients, including one death. Permanent deficits occurred in nine patients (3.9% per embolization procedure, 12.8% per patient). Of the patients with new neurological deficits, 18 (90%) of 20 embolization procedures resulted in new abnormalities on CT scans. Two patients with new transient neurological deficits had no new findings on CT scans. Spetzler—Martin grade, AVM location, degree of arteriovenous shunting, and higher numbers of procedures were not statistically associated with a higher incidence of abnormalities on CT scans or new permanent neurological deficits.
Conclusions. Silk sutures are an effective and relatively safe embolic agent. After brain AVM embolization with silk sutures, new abnormalities were found on CT scans obtained in one of eight procedures. When a new CT finding occurred, the patient had roughly equal chances of having no new symptoms, having new transient neurological deficits, or having new permanent neurological deficits.
Won-Sang Cho, Young Seob Chung, Jeong Eun Kim, Jin Pyeong Jeon, Young Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Ho Sohn and Chang Wan Oh
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease and its natural history is still unclear. The authors aimed to investigate the natural course of hemodynamically stable cases of adult MMD, with the analysis of stroke risk factors.
Two hundred forty-one patients were included in this retrospective study. One hundred sixty-six (68.9%) were female, and mean age (± SD) at first visit was 41.3 ± 12.0 years (range 18–69 years). Unilateral involvement was identified in 33 patients, and 19 patients (7.9%) had a family history of MMD. According to the clinical presentations, patients were classified into hemorrhagic (n = 62, 25.7%), ischemic (n = 144, 59.8%), and asymptomatic (n = 35, 14.5%) groups. The mean duration of follow-up was 82.5 ± 62.9 months (range 7.3–347.0 months).
The annual stroke risk was 4.5%, and the annual risks of rebleeding in the hemorrhagic group and recurrent ischemic events in the ischemic group were 4.3% and 3.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in cumulative stroke risk between the 3 groups (p = 0.461). Risk factors included thyroid disease for overall strokes (HR 2.56, 95% CI 1.16–5.67), initial hemorrhagic presentation for hemorrhagic strokes (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24–5.17), and initial ischemic presentation for ischemic strokes (HR 2.69, 95% CI 1.15–6.27). Familial MMD was a common risk factor for all types of stroke. Among the 3 clinical groups, the hemorrhagic group showed the worst clinical status at discharge and at most recent follow-up. Twenty-three patients (9.5%) eventually underwent revascularization surgery.
There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of stroke in the different clinical groups; clinical status, however, was most severe in patients with hemorrhagic presentation. In patients who experienced stroke during the follow-up period, the stroke type tended to correspond to their initial presentation. Close follow-up is needed in patients with thyroid disease and a family history of MMD.
Sang Hyun Suh, Byung Moon Kim, Sung Il Park, Dong Ik Kim, Yong Sam Shin, Eui Jong Kim, Eun Chul Chung, Jun Seok Koh, Hyun Cheol Shin, Chun Sik Choi and Yu Sam Won
A ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA-DA) is a well-known cause of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with a high rate of early rebleeding. Internal trapping of the parent artery, including the dissected segment, is one of the most reliable techniques to prevent rebleeding. However, for a ruptured VBA-DA not suitable for internal trapping, the optimal treatment method has not been well established. The authors describe their experience in treating ruptured VBA-DAs not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery with stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) followed by a stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique.
Eleven patients—6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 48 years and each with a ruptured VBA-DA not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery—underwent an SAC-SWS between November 2005 and October 2007. The feasibility and clinical and angiographic outcomes of this combined procedure were retrospectively evaluated.
The SAC-SWS was successful without any treatment-related complications in all 11 patients. Immediate posttreatment angiograms revealed complete obliteration of the DA sac in 3 patients, near-complete obliteration in 7, and partial obliteration in 1. One patient died as a direct consequence of the initial SAH. All 10 surviving patients had excellent clinical outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) without posttreatment rebleeding during a follow-up period of 8–24 months (mean follow-up 15 months). Angiographic follow-up at 6–12 months after treatment was possible at least once in all surviving patients. Nine VBA-DAs showed complete obliteration; the other aneurysm, which had appeared partially obliterated immediately after treatment, demonstrated progressive obliteration on 2 consecutive follow-up angiography studies. There was no in-stent stenosis or occlusion of the branch or perforating vessels.
The SAC-SWS technique seems to be a feasible and effective reconstructive treatment option for a ruptured VBA-DA. The technique may be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients with ruptured VBA-DAs unsuitable for internal trapping of the parent artery.
Chang Hwan Pang, Soo Eon Lee, Chang Hyeun Kim, Jeong Eun Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Kee Park, Sun Ha Paek, Chi Heon Kim, Tae-Ahn Jahng, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Dong Gyu Kim, Chun Kee Chung, Hee-Won Jung and Heon Yoo
There is inconsistency among the perioperative management strategies currently used for chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Moreover, postoperative complications such as acute intracranial bleeding and cSDH recurrence affect clinical outcome of cSDH surgery. This study evaluated the risk factors associated with acute intracranial bleeding and cSDH recurrence and identified an effective perioperative strategy for cSDH patients.
A retrospective study of patients who underwent bur hole craniostomy for cSDH between 2008 and 2012 was performed.
A consecutive series of 303 cSDH patients (234 males and 69 females; mean age 67.17 years) was analyzed. Postoperative acute intracranial bleeding developed in 14 patients (4.57%) within a mean of 3.07 days and recurrence was observed in 37 patients (12.21%) within a mean of 31.69 days (range 10–104 days) after initial bur hole craniostomy. The comorbidities of hematological disease and prior shunt surgery were clinical factors associated with acute bleeding. There was a significant risk of recurrence in patients with diabetes mellitus, but recurrence did not affect the final neurological outcome (p = 0.776). Surgical details, including the number of operative bur holes, saline irrigation of the hematoma cavity, use of a drain, and type of postoperative ambulation, were not significantly associated with outcome. However, a large amount of drainage was associated with postoperative acute bleeding.
Bur hole craniostomy is an effective surgical procedure for initial and recurrent cSDH. Patients with hematological disease or a history of prior shunt surgery are at risk for postoperative acute bleeding; therefore, these patients should be carefully monitored to avoid overdrainage. Surgeons should consider informing patients with diabetes mellitus that this comorbidity is associated with an increased likelihood of recurrence.