Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 21 items for

  • Author or Editor: Eric S. Sussman x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Eric S. Sussman, Allen L. Ho, Arjun V. Pendharkar and Jamshid Ghajar

Sports-related concussion is a change in brain function following a direct or an indirect force to the head, identified in awake individuals and accounting for a considerable proportion of mild traumatic brain injury. Although the neurological signs and symptoms of concussion can be subtle and transient, there can be persistent sequelae, such as impaired attention and balance, that make affected patients particularly vulnerable to further injury. Currently, there is no accepted definition or diagnostic criteria for concussion, and there is no single assessment that is accepted as capable of identifying all patients with concussion. In this paper, the authors review the available screening tools for concussion, with particular emphasis on the role of visual function testing. In particular, they discuss the oculomotor assessment tools that are being investigated in the setting of concussion screening.

Free access

Arjun V. Pendharkar, Eric S. Sussman, Allen L. Ho, Melanie G. Hayden Gephart and Laurence Katznelson

Cushing's disease (CD) is a state of excess glucocorticoid production resulting from an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–secreting pituitary adenoma. The gold-standard treatment for CD is transsphenoidal adenomectomy. In the hands of an experienced neurosurgeon, gross-total resection is possible in the majority of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, with early postoperative remission rates ranging from 67% to 95%. In contrast to the strong data in support of resection, the clinical course of postsurgical persistent or recurrent disease remains unclear. There is significant variability in recurrence rates, with reports as high as 36% with a mean time to recurrence of 15–50 months. It is therefore important to develop biochemical criteria that define postsurgical remission and that may provide prognosis for long-term recurrence. Despite the use of a number of biochemical assessments, there is debate regarding the accuracy of these tests in predicting recurrence. Here, the authors review the various biochemical criteria and assess their utility in predicting CD recurrence after resection.

Full access

Eric S. Sussman, Christopher P. Kellner, Joanna L. Mergeche, Samuel S. Bruce, Michael M. McDowell, Eric J. Heyer and E. Sander Connolly

Object

Approximately 25% of patients exhibit cognitive dysfunction 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). One of the purported mechanisms of early cognitive dysfunction (eCD) is hypoperfusion due to inadequate collateral circulation during cross-clamping of the carotid artery. The authors assessed whether poor collateral circulation within the circle of Willis, as determined by preoperative CT angiography (CTA) or MR angiography (MRA), could predict eCD.

Methods

Patients who underwent CEA after preoperative MRA or CTA imaging and full neuropsychometric evaluation were included in this study (n = 42); 4 patients were excluded due to intraoperative electroencephalographic changes and subsequent shunt placement. Thirty-eight patients were included in the statistical analyses. Patients were stratified according to posterior communicating artery (PCoA) status (radiographic visualization of at least 1 PCoA vs of no PCoAs). Variables with p < 0.20 in univariate analyses were included in a stepwise multivariate logistic regression model to identify predictors of eCD after CEA.

Results

Overall, 23.7% of patients exhibited eCD. In the final multivariate logistic regression model, radiographic absence of both PCoAs was the only independent predictor of eCD (OR 9.64, 95% CI 1.43–64.92, p = 0.02).

Conclusions

The absence of both PCoAs on preoperative radiographic imaging is predictive of eCD after CEA. This finding supports the evidence for an underlying ischemic etiology of eCD. Larger studies are justified to verify the findings of this study. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00597883 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).

Full access

Eric S. Sussman, Christopher P. Kellner, Eric Nelson, Michael M. McDowell, Samuel S. Bruce, Rachel A. Bruce, Zong Zhuang and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

Ventriculostomy—the placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD)—is a common procedure performed in patients with acute neurological injury. Although generally considered a low-risk intervention, recent studies have cited higher rates of hemorrhagic complications than those previously reported. The authors sought to determine the rate of postventriculostomy hemorrhage in a cohort of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to identify predictors of hemorrhagic complications of EVD placement.

Methods

Patients with ICH who underwent EVD placement and had both pre- and postprocedural imaging available for analysis were included in this study. Relevant data were prospectively collected for each patient who satisfied inclusion criteria. Variables with a p < 0.20 on univariate analyses were included in a stepwise logistic regression model to identify predictors of postventriculostomy hemorrhage.

Results

Sixty-nine patients were eligible for this analysis. Postventriculostomy hemorrhage occurred in 31.9% of patients. Among all patients with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, the mean hemorrhage volume was 0.66 ± 1.06 cm3. Stratified according to ventricular catheter diameter, patients treated with smaller-diameter catheters had a significantly greater mean hemorrhage volume than patients treated with larger-diameter catheters (0.84 ± 1.2 cm3 vs 0.14 ± 0.12 cm3, p = 0.049). Postventriculostomy hemorrhage was clinically significant in only 1 patient (1.4%). Overall, postventriculostomy hemorrhage was not associated with functional outcome or mortality at either discharge or 90 days. In the multivariate model, an age > 75 years was the only independent predictor of EVD-associated hemorrhage.

Conclusions

Advanced age is predictive of EVD-related hemorrhage in patients with ICH. While postventriculostomy hemorrhage is common, it appears to be of minor clinical significance in the majority of patients.

Free access

Arjun V. Pendharkar, Sabrina L. Levy, Allen L. Ho, Eric S. Sussman, Michelle Y. Cheng and Gary K. Steinberg

Stroke is one of the leading contributors to morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in the United States. Although several preclinical strategies have shown promise in the laboratory, few have succeeded in the clinical setting. Optogenetics represents a promising molecular tool, which enables highly specific circuit-level neuromodulation. Here, the conceptual background and preclinical body of evidence for optogenetics are reviewed, and translational considerations in stroke recovery are discussed.

Free access

Allen L. Ho, Eric S. Sussman, Arjun V. Pendharkar, Dan E. Azagury, Cara Bohon and Casey H. Halpern

Obesity is one of the most serious public health concerns in the US. While bariatric surgery has been shown to be successful for treatment of morbid obesity for those who have undergone unsuccessful behavioral modification, its associated risks and rates of relapse are not insignificant. There exists a neurological basis for the binge-like feeding behavior observed in morbid obesity that is believed to be due to dysregulation of the reward circuitry. The authors present a review of the evidence of the neuroanatomical basis for obesity, the potential neural targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS), as well as a rationale for DBS and future trial design. Identification of an appropriate patient population that would most likely benefit from this type of therapy is essential. There are also significant cost and ethical considerations for such a neuromodulatory intervention designed to alter maladaptive behavior. Finally, the authors present a consolidated set of inclusion criteria and study end points that should serve as the basis for any trial of DBS for obesity.

Restricted access

Allen L. Ho, Yagmur Muftuoglu, Arjun V. Pendharkar, Eric S. Sussman, Brenda E. Porter, Casey H. Halpern and Gerald A. Grant

OBJECTIVE

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) has increased in popularity for localization of epileptogenic zones in drug-resistant epilepsy because safety, accuracy, and efficacy have been well established in both adult and pediatric populations. Development of robot-guidance technology has greatly enhanced the efficiency of this procedure, without sacrificing safety or precision. To date there have been very limited reports of the use of this new technology in children. The authors present their initial experience using the ROSA platform for robot-guided SEEG in a pediatric population.

METHODS

Between February 2016 and October 2017, 20 consecutive patients underwent robot-guided SEEG with the ROSA robotic guidance platform as part of ongoing seizure localization and workup for medically refractory epilepsy of several different etiologies. Medical and surgical history, imaging and trajectory plans, as well as operative records were analyzed retrospectively for surgical accuracy, efficiency, safety, and epilepsy outcomes.

RESULTS

A total of 222 leads were placed in 20 patients, with an average of 11.1 leads per patient. The mean total case time (± SD) was 297.95 (± 52.96) minutes and the mean operating time per lead was 10.98 minutes/lead, with improvements in total (33.36 minutes/lead vs 21.76 minutes/lead) and operative (13.84 minutes/lead vs 7.06 minutes/lead) case times/lead over the course of the study. The mean radial error was 1.75 (± 0.94 mm). Clinically useful data were obtained from SEEG in 95% of cases, and epilepsy surgery was indicated and performed in 95% of patients. In patients who underwent definitive epilepsy surgery with at least a 3-month follow-up, 50% achieved an Engel class I result (seizure freedom). There were no postoperative complications associated with SEEG placement and monitoring.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors demonstrate that rapid adoption of robot-guided SEEG is possible even at a SEEG-naïve institution, with minimal learning curve. Use of robot guidance for SEEG can lead to significantly decreased operating times while maintaining safety, the overall goals of identification of epileptogenic zones, and improved epilepsy outcomes.

Free access

Allen L. Ho, Anne-Mary N. Salib, Arjun V. Pendharkar, Eric S. Sussman, William J. Giardino and Casey H. Halpern

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a difficult to treat condition with a significant global public health and cost burden. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in AUD and identified as an ideal target for deep brain stimulation (DBS). There are promising preclinical animal studies of DBS for alcohol consumption as well as some initial human clinical studies that have shown some promise at reducing alcohol-related cravings and, in some instances, achieving long-term abstinence. In this review, the authors discuss the evidence and concepts supporting the role of the NAc in AUD, summarize the findings from published NAc DBS studies in animal models and humans, and consider the challenges and propose future directions for neuromodulation of the NAc for the treatment of AUD.

Restricted access

Allen L. Ho, Yagmur Muftuoglu, Arjun V. Pendharkar, Eric S. Sussman, Brenda E. Porter, Casey H. Halpern and Gerald A. Grant

OBJECTIVE

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) has increased in popularity for localization of epileptogenic zones in drug-resistant epilepsy because safety, accuracy, and efficacy have been well established in both adult and pediatric populations. Development of robot-guidance technology has greatly enhanced the efficiency of this procedure, without sacrificing safety or precision. To date there have been very limited reports of the use of this new technology in children. The authors present their initial experience using the ROSA platform for robot-guided SEEG in a pediatric population.

METHODS

Between February 2016 and October 2017, 20 consecutive patients underwent robot-guided SEEG with the ROSA robotic guidance platform as part of ongoing seizure localization and workup for medically refractory epilepsy of several different etiologies. Medical and surgical history, imaging and trajectory plans, as well as operative records were analyzed retrospectively for surgical accuracy, efficiency, safety, and epilepsy outcomes.

RESULTS

A total of 222 leads were placed in 20 patients, with an average of 11.1 leads per patient. The mean total case time (± SD) was 297.95 (± 52.96) minutes and the mean operating time per lead was 10.98 minutes/lead, with improvements in total (33.36 minutes/lead vs 21.76 minutes/lead) and operative (13.84 minutes/lead vs 7.06 minutes/lead) case times/lead over the course of the study. The mean radial error was 1.75 (± 0.94 mm). Clinically useful data were obtained from SEEG in 95% of cases, and epilepsy surgery was indicated and performed in 95% of patients. In patients who underwent definitive epilepsy surgery with at least a 3-month follow-up, 50% achieved an Engel class I result (seizure freedom). There were no postoperative complications associated with SEEG placement and monitoring.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors demonstrate that rapid adoption of robot-guided SEEG is possible even at a SEEG-naïve institution, with minimal learning curve. Use of robot guidance for SEEG can lead to significantly decreased operating times while maintaining safety, the overall goals of identification of epileptogenic zones, and improved epilepsy outcomes.

Free access

Zachary L. Hickman, Michael M. McDowell, Sunjay M. Barton, Eric S. Sussman, Eli Grunstein and Richard C. E. Anderson

The endoscopic transnasal approach to the rostral pediatric spine and craniovertebral junction is a relatively new technique that provides an alternative to the traditional transoral approach to the anterior pediatric spine. In this case series, the authors provide 2 additional examples of patients undergoing endoscopic transnasal odontoidectomies for ventral decompression of the spinal cord. Both patients would have required transection of the palate to undergo an effective transoral operation, which can be a cause of significant morbidity. In one case, transnasal decompression was initially incomplete, and decompression was successfully achieved via a second endoscopic transnasal operation. Both cases resulted in significant neurological recovery and stable long-term spinal alignment. The transnasal approach benefits from entering into the posterior pharynx at an angle that often reduces the length of postoperative intubation and may speed a patient's return to oral intake. Higher reoperation rates are a concern for many endoscopic approaches, but there are insufficient data to conclude if this is the case for this procedure. Further experience with this technique will provide a better understanding of the indications for which it is most effective. Transcervical and transoral endoscopic approaches have also been reported and provide additional options for pediatric anterior cervical spine surgery.