Orbital tumors treated using transcranial approaches: surgical technique and neuroophthalmogical results in 41 patients
Rachel Grossman, Erez Nossek, Nir Shimony, Michal Raz, and Zvi Ram
The authors report a case of primary CNS lymphoma located in the floor of the fourth ventricle that showed intense fluorescence after preoperative administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The authors believe that this is the first demonstration of a 5-aminolevulinic acid–induced fluorescence pattern in primary CNS lymphoma.
Erez Nossek, David J. Chalif, Shamik Chakraborty, Kim Lombardo, Karen S. Black, and Avi Setton
The use of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) as a sole endovascular modality has been described for the treatment of brain aneurysms. The benefit of using coils concurrently with a limited number of PEDs is not well documented. The authors describe their experience with this technique as well as their midterm clinical and angiographic results.
This is a retrospective review of patients treated between 2011 and 2014. The authors placed a minimal number of PEDs with the addition of coils using a “jailed” microcatheter technique. A partially dense coil mass was obtained. Immediate and midterm clinical and angiographic results are reviewed.
The authors treated 27 patients harboring 28 aneurysms using this technique. The mean aneurysm size was 11.9 mm, and the mean neck size was 5.4 mm. A mean of 1.48 PEDs were placed per patient, and a mean of 1.33 PEDs per aneurysm were placed. The Raymond score immediately after PED placement was 2 or 3 in 82.1% of the patients.
There were no intraprocedural or postprocedural complications. All PEDs were successfully deployed. No clinical or technical adverse effects related to the coil mass were observed. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of ischemia in this group. At follow-up imaging, complete aneurysm occlusion was demonstrated on the first MR angiogram (3–5 months) in all patients who reached this milestone. Follow-up digital subtraction angiography (5–13 months) confirmed complete occlusion in all patients who reached this milestone. All patients maintained their baseline clinical status.
The deployment of PEDs with concurrent partially dense coiling is safe and efficacious. This technique achieved early complete occlusion and endovascular reconstruction of the parent vessel, without inducing mass effect. Favorable midterm clinical results were observed in all patients.
Omer Doron, Ofer Barnea, Nino Stocchetti, Tal Or, Erez Nossek, and Guy Rosenthal
Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of intracranial elastance; however, methodological difficulties have limited widespread clinical use. Measuring elastance may offer potential benefit in helping to identify patients at risk for untoward intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation from small rises in intracranial volume. The authors sought to develop an easily used method that accounts for the changing ICP that occurs over a cardiac cycle and to assess this method in a large-animal model over a broad range of ICPs.
The authors used their previously described cardiac-gated intracranial balloon pump and swine model of cerebral edema. In the present experiment they measured elastance at 4 points along the cardiac cycle—early systole, peak systole, mid-diastole, and end diastole—by using rapid balloon inflation to 1 ml over an ICP range of 10–30 mm Hg.
The authors studied 7 swine with increasing cerebral edema. Intracranial elastance rose progressively with increasing ICP. Peak-systolic and end-diastolic elastance demonstrated the most consistent rise in elastance as ICP increased. Cardiac-gated elastance measurements had markedly lower variance within swine compared with non–cardiac-gated measures. The slope of the ICP–elastance curve differed between swine. At ICP between 20 and 25 mm Hg, elastance varied between 8.7 and 15.8 mm Hg/ml, indicating that ICP alone cannot accurately predict intracranial elastance.
Measuring intracranial elastance in a cardiac-gated manner is feasible and may offer an improved precision of measure. The authors’ preliminary data suggest that because elastance values may vary at similar ICP levels, ICP alone may not necessarily best reflect the state of intracranial volume reserve capacity. Paired ICP–elastance measurements may offer benefit as an adjunct “early warning monitor” alerting to the risk of untoward ICP elevation in brain-injured patients that is induced by small increases in intracranial volume.
Nevo Margalit, Haim Ezer, Dan M. Fliss, Elvira Naftaliev, Erez Nossek, and Anat Kesler
Orbital tumors can be divided schematically into primary lesions, originating from the orbit itself, and secondary lesions, extending to the orbit from neighboring structures. These tumors are variable in their biological nature and in their location. The authors evaluate 41 cases of benign and malignant tumors involving the orbit and discuss the surgical challenge, which involves tumor removal, preserving visual function and cosmetic reconstruction.
The authors performed a retrospective analysis of a series of all cases involving patients who underwent surgery for treatment of orbital tumors in their hospital between December 2003 and December 2006. Data were collected from the patients' files in the hospital's outpatient clinic, operative notes, and pre- and postoperative imaging studies.
The authors identified 41 patients who met the inclusion criteria (age range 14–82 years, mean 42.2 years, standard deviation 22.4 years). The most common presenting symptoms were proptosis and/or partial ptosis (11 cases [27%]) and headache (7 cases [17%]). In 5 (12%) cases, the tumors were primary intraorbital lesions, and in 34 cases (83%) they were secondary. Two patients had metastases to the orbit. The most common lesion types were meningioma (10 cases [24%]) and osteoma (7 cases [17%]). In 24 cases a midline approach through a frontal craniotomy or a subcranial approach was used; in 13 a lateral approach was used; and in 4 a biopsy procedure was performed. Maxillectomy through a Weber–Ferguson approach or a facial degloving approach was added in 5 cases to complete tumor removal. Duration of follow-up was 1–38 months (mean 20 months). None of the patients died as a result of the procedure, and there were relatively few complications. Excluding the patients who underwent orbital exenteration, none of the patients had visual deterioration following surgery, and most had no change in their visual condition. Two patients had temporary diplopia, 1 had a cerebrospinal fluid leak, and 1 had enophthalmos following removal of an orbital osteosarcoma.
Orbital tumors can be treated safely using transcranial approaches in many cases. Preoperative imaging can accurately define the compartments involved and the surgical approach needed for tumor removal. A multidisciplinary team of surgeons facilitates optimal tumor removal and skull base sealing as well as good cosmetic results.
Tal Gonen, Rachel Grossman, Razi Sitt, Erez Nossek, Raneen Yanaki, Emanuela Cagnano, Akiva Korn, Daniel Hayat, and Zvi Ram
Intraoperative seizures during awake craniotomy may interfere with patients' ability to cooperate throughout the procedure, and it may affect their outcome. The authors have assessed the occurrence of intraoperative seizures during awake craniotomy in regard to tumor location and the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) status of the tumor.
Data were collected in 137 consecutive patients who underwent awake craniotomy for removal of a brain tumor. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the incidence of seizures based on the tumor location and its IDH1 mutation status, and then compared the groups for clinical variables and surgical outcome parameters.
Tumor location was strongly associated with the occurrence of intraoperative seizures. Eleven patients (73%) with tumor located in the supplementary motor area (SMA) experienced intraoperative seizures, compared with 17 (13.9%) with tumors in the other three non-SMA brain regions (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, there was no significant association between history of seizures and tumor location (p = 0.44). Most of the patients (63.6%) with tumor in the SMA region harbored an IDH1 mutation compared with those who had tumors in non-SMA regions. Thirty-one of 52 patients (60%) with a preoperative history of seizures had an IDH1 mutation (p = 0.02), and 15 of 22 patients (68.2%) who experienced intraoperative seizures had an IDH1 mutation (p = 0.03). In a multivariate analysis, tumor location was found as a significant predictor of intraoperative seizures (p = 0.002), and a trend toward IDH1 mutation as such a predictor was found as well (p = 0.06). Intraoperative seizures were not associated with worse outcome.
Patients with tumors located in the SMA are more prone to develop intraoperative seizures during awake craniotomy compared with patients who have a tumor in non-SMA frontal areas and other brain regions. The IDH1 mutation was more common in SMA region tumors compared with other brain regions, and may be an additional risk factor for the occurrence of intraoperative seizures.
Tal Shahar, Akiva Korn, Gal Barkay, Tali Biron, Amir Hadanny, Tomer Gazit, Erez Nossek, Margaret Ekstein, Anat Kesler, and Zvi Ram
Resection of intraaxial tumors adjacent to the optic radiation (OR) may be associated with postoperative visual field (VF) deficits. Intraoperative navigation using MRI-based tractography and electrophysiological monitoring of the visual pathways may allow maximal resection while preserving visual function. In this study, the authors evaluated the value of visual pathway mapping in a series of patients undergoing awake craniotomy for tumor resection.
A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted in 18 patients who underwent an awake craniotomy for resection of intraaxial tumors involving or adjacent to the OR. Preoperative MRI-based tractography was used for intraoperative navigation, and intraoperative acquisition of 3D ultrasonography images was performed for real-time imaging and correction of brain shift. Goggles with light-emitting diodes were used as a standard visual stimulus. Direct cortical visual evoked potential (VEP) recording, subcortical recordings from the OR, and subcortical stimulation of the OR were used intraoperatively to assess visual function and proximity of the lesion to the OR. VFs were assessed pre- and postoperatively.
Baseline cortical VEP recordings were available for 14 patients (77.7%). No association was found between preoperative VF status and baseline presence of cortical VEPs (p = 0.27). Five of the 14 patients (35.7%) who underwent subcortical stimulation of the OR reported seeing phosphenes in the corresponding contralateral VF. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.899, p = 0.04) between the subcortical threshold stimulation intensity (3–11.5 mA) and the distance from the OR. Subcortical recordings from the OR demonstrated a typical VEP waveform in 10 of the 13 evaluated patients (76.9%). These waveforms were present only when recordings were obtained within 10 mm of the OR (p = 0.04). Seven patients (38.9%) had postoperative VF deterioration, and it was associated with a length of < 8 mm between the tumor and the OR (p = 0.05).
Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring of the visual pathways is feasible but may be of limited value in preserving the functional integrity of the posterior visual pathways. Subcortical stimulation of the OR may identify the location of the OR when done in proximity to the pathways, but such proximity may be associated with increased risk of postoperative worsening of the VF deficit.
Erez Nossek, Idit Matot, Tal Shahar, Ori Barzilai, Yoni Rapoport, Tal Gonen, Gal Sela, Akiva Korn, Daniel Hayat, and Zvi Ram
Awake craniotomy for removal of intraaxial tumors within or adjacent to eloquent brain regions is a well-established procedure. However, awake craniotomy failures have not been well characterized. In the present study, the authors aimed to analyze and assess the incidence and causes for failed awake craniotomy.
The database of awake craniotomies performed at Tel Aviv Medical Center between 2003 and 2010 was reviewed. Awake craniotomy was considered a failure if conversion to general anesthesia was required, or if adequate mapping or monitoring could not have been achieved.
Of 488 patients undergoing awake craniotomy, 424 were identified as having complete medical, operative, and anesthesiology records. The awake craniotomies performed in 27 (6.4%) of these 424 patients were considered failures. The main causes of failure were lack of intraoperative communication with the patient (n = 18 [4.2%]) and/or intraoperative seizures (n = 9 [2.1%]). Preoperative mixed dysphasia (p < 0.001) and treatment with phenytoin (p = 0.0019) were related to failure due to lack of communication. History of seizures (p = 0.03) and treatment with multiple antiepileptic drugs (p = 0.0012) were found to be related to failure due to intraoperative seizures. Compared with the successful awake craniotomy group, a significantly lower rate of gross-total resection was achieved (83% vs 54%, p = 0.008), there was a higher incidence of short-term speech deterioration postoperatively (6.1% vs 23.5%, p = 0.0017) as well as at 3 months postoperatively (2.3% vs 15.4%, p = 0.0002), and the hospitalization period was longer (4.9 ± 6.2 days vs 8.0 ± 10.1 days, p < 0.001). Significantly more major complications occurred in the failure group (4 [14.8%] of 27) than in the successful group (16 [4%] of 397) (p = 0.037).
Failures of awake craniotomy were associated with a lower incidence of gross-total resection and increased postoperative morbidity. The majority of awake craniotomy failures were preventable by adequate patient selection and avoiding side effects of drugs administered during surgery.
Tal Shahar, Uri Rozovski, Yuval Shapira, Erez Nossek, Bracha Zelikovich, Joseph Jossiphov, Zvi Ram, Andrew A. Kanner, Tali Siegal, Deborah T. Blumenthal, and Iris Lavon
The differential diagnosis of a brain lesion with two discordant pathology reports includes the presence of collision tumor, metaplastic changes, and labeling errors that occurred during the processing of the specimen. The authors present a case in which the first brain biopsy from a 47-year-old patient with a history of heavy smoking was compatible with metastatic small cell carcinoma, and the second biopsy taken during decompression craniotomy 3 weeks later was compatible with WHO Grade IV glioblastoma. Using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of the two specimens and nontumor-derived patient DNA, the authors found that the two specimens did not belong to the same individual. The authors conclude that allele imbalance or loss of heterozygosity detected by STR analysis is a reliable and valuable diagnostic tool for clarifying discrepancies in discordant pathology reports.
Keren Rosenberg, Erez Nossek, Ronit Liebling, Itzhak Fried, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Talma Hendler, and Zvi Ram
Resection of lesions involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) may result in immediate postoperative motor and speech deficits that are reversible in most cases. In the present study the authors aimed to determine the critical involvement of SMA in the lesioned and healthy hemispheres in this functional recovery. They hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms take place following surgery in the SMA, and that these mechanisms can involve either the lesioned or the non-lesioned hemisphere. In addition, they hypothesized that a correlation will be present between the functional MR imaging (fMR) imaging–related activation in the SMA and the occurrence of a functional deficit during intraoperative cortical stimulation.
Twenty-six patients scheduled for resection of space-occupying lesions involving, or in the vicinity of, the SMA were recruited. Patients underwent an fMR imaging examination that included finger-tapping and verb-generation tests to assess for motor and language functions. Intraoperatively direct cortical stimulation (DCS) of the SMA region was performed while patients were monitored for language and motor functions using tests similar to those used for the fMR imaging. Task dysfunction during DCS assessed the critical involvement of the SMA in the tested functions. Neurological evaluations were performed prior to surgery and at 3 time points within a month following surgery. A region of interest–based approach was used to evaluate fMR imaging blood oxygen level–dependent activation level and asymmetry in the SMA. These measurements were later compared with the intraoperative DCS and neurological findings.
Functional MR imaging showed greater activation and dominance of the SMA in the lesioned hemisphere in patients who exhibited no motor or language dysfunction during DCS. In addition, patients with the highest activation of the SMA in the lesioned hemisphere for language and motor tests showed stronger coupling of this region with ipsilateral motor and language networks. In contrast, activation in the nonlesioned hemisphere did not correspond with DCS results.
The authors' findings demonstrate the necessity of activation in the vicinity of the lesioned SMA for functional compensation in motor and language tasks. It is possible that more effective functional coupling of the SMA with motor and language areas in the same hemisphere prevents dysfunctions following surgical intervention. Importantly, fMR imaging activation in the unaffected SMA was not sufficient for development of functional compensation and, if anything, indicated decompensation.