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Fabian Isamat, Enrique Ferrer and Jorge Twose

✓ Four cases of high-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula (CCF), three of them posttraumatic and one spontaneous, have been treated by a direct surgical approach to the cavernous sinus. The CCF's were obliterated by the introduction into the cavernous sinus of muscle fragments and/or fibrin sealant. In the three cases witha preoperatively patent internal carotid artery (ICA), the CCF was occluded and the ICA flow preserved. One of these also had a posttraumatic false aneurysm that enclosed the two avulsed ends of a transected intracavernous ICA. This was treated by cervical ICA ligation following resolution of the CCF. A fourth patient, who had previously undergone an unsuccessful ICA trapping procedure elsewhere, also obtained a good result. The case histories and the surgical technique are presented. Direct intracavernous obliteration with muscle fragments and fibrin sealant fulfills the criteria for treatment of high-flow CCF's: occlusion of the arteriovenous fistula and preservation of the ICA circulation. While this surgical technique is a therapeutic option in some cases, it appears to have precise indications in others.

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Matteo de Notaris, Domenico Solari, Luigi M. Cavallo, Alfonso Iodice D'Enza, Joaquim Enseñat, Joan Berenguer, Enrique Ferrer, Alberto Prats-Galino and Paolo Cappabianca


The tuberculum sellae is a bony elevation ridge that lines up the anterior aspect of the sella, dividing it from the chiasmatic groove. The recent use of the endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum approach has provided surgeons with a method to reach the suprasellar area, offering a new surgical point of view somehow “opposite” of this area. The authors of this study aimed to define the tuberculum sellae as seen from the endoscopic endonasal view while also providing CT-based systematic measurements to objectively detail the anatomical features of such a structure, which was renamed the “suprasellar notch.”


The authors analyzed routine skull CT scans from 24 patients with no brain pathology or fractures and measured the interoptic distance at the level of the limbus sphenoidale, the chiasmatic groove sulcal length and width, and the angle of the suprasellar notch.

Indeed, the suprasellar notch was defined as the angle between 2 lines, the first passing through the tuberculum sellae midpoint and perpendicular to the cribriform plate, and a second line passing between 2 points, the midpoints of the limbus sphenoidale and the tuberculum sellae. Moreover, the authors performed on 15 cadaveric heads an endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach with the aid of a neuronavigator to achieve a step-by-step comparison with the radiological data. The whole CT scanning set was statistically analyzed to determine the statistical interdependency of the suprasellar notch angle with the other 3 measurements, that is, the sulcal length at the midline, the interoptic distance at the optic canal entrance, and the interoptic distance at the limbus.


Based on the endoscopic endonasal view and CT imaging analysis, the authors identified a certain anatomical variability and thus introduced a new classification of the suprasellar notch: Type I, angle < 118°; Type II, angle of 118°–138°; and Type III, angle > 138°. They then analyzed the surgical implications of the endoscopic endonasal approach to the suprasellar area, which could be affected by each of these structural types.


The new classification identifies 3 different types of suprasellar notch and, accordingly, their surgical relevance. Above all, the authors found that the different types of suprasellar notch can affect the osteodural defect reconstruction technique, namely the positioning/wedging of the buttress in the extradural space. A precise endoscopic anatomical knowledge of the neurovascular and bony relationships—especially in cases of a less pneumatized sphenoid sinus—is crucial when approaching the anterior skull base via a transtuberculum transplanum route.

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Jose Juan González Sánchez, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Alberto Prats-Galino, Matteo de Notaris, Joan Berenguer, Enrique Ferrer Rodríguez and Arnau Benet


The temporal horn of the lateral ventricle is a complex structure affected by specific pathological conditions. Current approaches to the temporal horn involve a certain amount of corticotomy and white matter disruption. Surgeons therefore set aside anterior temporal lobectomy as a last resource and avoid it in the dominant hemisphere. The authors propose a minimally invasive endoscopic intraventricular approach to the temporal horn and describe a standardized analysis and technical assessment of the feasibility of this approach.


To determine the best trajectory, angulation, and entry point to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, the authors evaluated 50 cranial MRI studies (100 temporal lobes) from healthy patients. They studied and systematized the neurosurgical endoscopic anatomy. They also simulated the proposed approach in 9 cadaveric specimens (18 approaches).


Mean scalp entry point coordinates (± SD) were 2.7 ± 0.28 cm lateral to the inion and 5.6 ± 0.41 cm superior to the inion. The mean total distance from the uncal recess to the scalp (± SD) was 10.64 ± 0.6 cm. The mean total intraparenchymal distance crossed by the endoscope was 3.76 ± 0.36 cm. The approach was successfully completed in all studied specimens.


In this study, the endoscopic intraventricular approach to the temporal horn is standardized. The morphometric analysis makes this approach anatomically feasible and replicable. This approach provides minimally invasive endoscopic access to the uncal recess, amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, and paraventricular temporal lobe structures. The following essential strategies enabled access to and maneuverability inside the temporal horn: tailored preoperative planning of the trajectory and use of anatomical and radiological references, constant irrigation, and an angled endoscopic lens. Safety assessment and novel instruments and techniques may be proposed to advance this very promising route to pathological changes in the temporal lobe.

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Santiago Candela, María Isabel Vanegas, Alejandra Darling, Juan Darío Ortigoza-Escobar, Mariana Alamar, Jordi Muchart, Alejandra Climent, Enrique Ferrer, Jordi Rumià and Belén Pérez-Dueñas


The purpose of this study was to verify the safety and accuracy of the Neuromate stereotactic robot for use in deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode implantation for the treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders in childhood and describe the authors’ initial clinical results.


A prospective evaluation of pediatric patients with dystonia and other hyperkinetic movement disorders was carried out during the 1st year after the start-up of a pediatric DBS unit in Barcelona. Electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) using the Neuromate robot without the stereotactic frame. The authors calculated the distances between the electrodes and their respective planned trajectories, merging the postoperative CT with the preoperative plan using VoXim software. Clinical outcome was monitored using validated scales for dystonia and myoclonus preoperatively and at 1 month and 6 months postoperatively and by means of a quality-of-life questionnaire for children, administered before surgery and at 6 months’ follow-up. We also recorded complications derived from the implantation technique, “hardware,” and stimulation.


Six patients aged 7 to 16 years and diagnosed with isolated dystonia (DYT1 negative) (3 patients), choreo-dystonia related to PDE2A mutation (1 patient), or myoclonus-dystonia syndrome SGCE mutations (2 patients) were evaluated during a period of 6 to 19 months. The average accuracy in the placement of the electrodes was 1.24 mm at the target point. At the 6-month follow-up, patients showed an improvement in the motor (65%) and functional (48%) components of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. Patients with myoclonus and SGCE mutations also showed an improvement in action myoclonus (95%–100%) and in functional tests (50%–75%) according to the Unified Motor-Rating Scale. The Neuro-QOL score revealed inconsistent results, with improvement in motor function and social relationships but worsening in anxiety, cognitive function, and pain. The only surgical complication was medial displacement of the first electrode, which limited intensity of stimulation in the lower contacts, in one case.


The Neuromate stereotactic robot is an accurate and safe tool for the placement of GPi electrodes in children with hyperkinetic movement disorders.