Emrah Celtikci, Fatih Yakar, Pinar Celtikci, and Yusuf Izci
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbar spondylolysis and payload weight between different combat units of Turkish land forces (TLF).
The authors reviewed clinical and radiological data of the military personnel with low-back pain (LBP) admitted to their clinic between July 2017 and July 2018. Age, BMI, average payload weight, and military service unit were recorded. CT scans were evaluated for pars interarticularis fractures and spondylolisthesis, whereas MRI studies were evaluated for spondylolisthesis, Modic-type endplate changes, or signal loss on T2-weighted images compatible with disc degeneration.
Following exclusion, a total of 642 all-male military personnel were included. Of these personnel, 122 were commandos, 435 were infantry, and 85 were serving in the artillery units. Bilateral pars interarticularis fracture was noted in 42 commandos (34.42%) and 2 infantrymen (0.45%). There was no spondylolysis in the artillery units. There was no multiple-level spondylolysis and the most common level of spondylolysis was L5. Commandos had a significantly higher incidence of spondylolysis and more average payload weight (p < 0.001). Twelve patients (27.2%) with spondylolysis had accompanying MRI pathologies at the same level, whereas 32 patients (72.7%) had no accompanying MRI pathologies.
Increased payload weight in military personnel is associated with spondylolysis, and commandos in the TLF have significantly heavier payloads, which causes an increased rate of spondylolysis compared to other units. Additionally, spondylolysis without adjacent-level changes on MRI could be undiagnosed. LBP in active military personnel who have a history of carrying heavy payloads should be evaluated extensively with both MRI and CT scans.
Emrah Celtikci, Burak Karaaslan, Alp Özgün Börcek, and Omer Hakan Emmez
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, neurosurgeons all around the globe continue to operate in emergency cases using new self-protective measures. Personal protective equipment (PPE) use is recommended in all surgeries. The authors have experienced varying degrees of field of view (FOV) loss under the surgical microscope with different PPE. Herein, they aimed to investigate the effects of different PPE on FOV while using the surgical microscope.
Fifteen neurosurgeons and neurosurgery residents participated in this study. Three kinds of PPE (safety spectacles, blast goggles, and face shields) were tested while using a surgical microscope. FOV was measured using a 12 × 12–cm checkered sheet of paper on which every square had an area of 25 mm2 under the microscope. The surgical microscope was positioned perpendicular to the test paper, and the zoom was fixed. Each participant marked on the test sheet the peripheral borders of their FOV while using different PPE and without wearing any PPE. A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine if there was a significant difference in FOV values with the different PPE.
FOV was significantly different between each PPE (F[3, 42] = 6339.845, p < 0.0005). Post hoc analysis revealed a significant decrease in the FOV from the naked eye (9305.33 ± 406.1 mm2) to blast goggles (2501.91 ± 176.5 mm2) and face shields (92.33 ± 6.4 mm2). There were no significant FOV changes with the safety spectacles (9267.45 ± 410.5 mm2).
While operating under a surgical microscope safety spectacles provide favorable FOVs. Face shields increase the eye piece–pupil distance, which causes a severe reduction in FOV.
Gokhan Kurt, Zuhal Yildirim, Berker Cemil, Emrah Celtikci, and Gulnur Take Kaplanoglu
The object of this study was to conduct a prospective, randomized, laboratory investigation of the neuroprotective effects of curcumin functionally, biochemically, and histologically in an experimental acute spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury on rabbits.
Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: the sham group, the ischemia-reperfusion group, or the curcumin group. Spinal cord ischemia was induced by applying an infrarenal aortic cross-clamp for 30 minutes. At 48 hours after ischemia, neurological function was evaluated with modified Tarlov criteria. Biochemical changes in the spinal cord and plasma were observed by measuring levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), nitrite/nitrate, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Histological changes were examined with H & E staining. Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against caspase-3 was performed to evaluate cell apoptosis after ischemia.
In the curcumin group, neurological outcome scores were statistically significantly better compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group. In the ischemia-reperfusion group, MDA, AOPP, and nitrite/nitrate levels were significantly elevated in the spinal cord tissue and the plasma by the induction of ischemia-reperfusion. The curcumin treatment significantly prevented the ischemia-reperfusion–induced elevation of nitrite/nitrate and TNF-α. In addition, the spinal cord tissue and the plasma SOD, GSH, and CAT levels were found to be preserved in the curcumin group and not statistically different from those of the sham group. Histological evaluation of the tissues also demonstrated a decrease in axonal damage, neuronal degeneration, and glial cell infiltration after curcumin administration.
Although further studies including different dose regimens and time intervals are required, curcumin could attenuate a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits via reducing oxidative products and proinflammatory cytokines, as well as increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes and preventing apoptotic cell death.
Huy Q. Truong, Edinson Najera, Robert Zanabria-Ortiz, Emrah Celtikci, Xicai Sun, Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Paul A. Gardner, and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda
The endoscopic endonasal approach has become a routine corridor to the suprasellar region. The superior hypophyseal arteries (SHAs) are intimately related to lesions in the suprasellar space, such as craniopharyngiomas and meningiomas. Here the authors investigate the surgical anatomy and variations of the SHA from the endoscopic endonasal perspective.
Thirty anatomical specimens with vascular injection were used for endoscopic endonasal dissection. The number of SHAs and their origin, course, branching, anastomoses, and areas of supply were collected and analyzed.
A total of 110 SHAs arising from 60 internal carotid arteries (ICAs), or 1.83 SHAs per ICA (range 0–3), were found. The most proximal SHA always ran in the preinfundibular space and provided the major blood supply to the infundibulum, optic chiasm, and proximal optic nerve; it was defined as the primary SHA (pSHA). The more distal SHA(s), present in 78.3% of sides, ran in the retroinfundibular space and supplied the stalk and may also supply the tuber cinereum and optic tracts. In the two sides (3.3%) in which no SHA was present, the territory was covered by a pair of infundibular arteries originating from the posterior communicating artery. Two-thirds of the pSHAs originated proximal to the distal dural ring; half of these arose from the carotid cave portion of the ICA, whereas the other half originated proximal to the cave. Four branching patterns of the pSHA were recognized, with the most common pattern (41.7%) consisting of three or more branches with a tree-like pattern. Descending branches were absent in 25% of cases. Preinfundibular anastomoses between pSHAs were found in all specimens. Anastomoses between the pSHA and the secondary SHA (sSHA) or the infundibular arteries were found in 75% cases.
The first SHA almost always supplies the infundibulum, optic chiasm, and proximal optic nerve and represents the pSHA. Compromising this artery can cause a visual deficit. Unilateral injury to the pSHA is less likely to cause an endocrine deficit given the artery’s abundant anastomoses. A detailed understanding of the surgical anatomy of the SHA and its many variations may help surgeons when approaching challenging lesions in the suprasellar region.
Huy Q. Truong, Xicai Sun, Emrah Celtikci, Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Eric W. Wang, Carl H. Snyderman, Paul A. Gardner, and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda
Multiple approaches have been designed to reach the medial middle fossa (for lesions in Meckel’s cave, in particular), but an anterior approach through the greater wing of the sphenoid (transalisphenoid) has not been explored. In this study, the authors sought to assess the feasibility of and define the anatomical landmarks for an endoscopic anterior transmaxillary transalisphenoid (EATT) approach to Meckel’s cave and the middle cranial fossa.
Endoscopic dissection was performed on 5 cadaver heads injected intravascularly with colored silicone bilaterally to develop the approach and define surgical landmarks. The authors then used this approach in 2 patients with tumors that involved Meckel’s cave and provide their illustrative clinical case reports.
The EATT approach is divided into the following 4 stages: 1) entry into the maxillary sinus, 2) exposure of the greater wing of the sphenoid, 3) exposure of the medial middle fossa, and 4) exposure of Meckel’s cave and lateral wall of the cavernous sinus. The approach provided excellent surgical access to the anterior and lateral portions of Meckel’s cave and offered the possibility of expanding into the infratemporal fossa and lateral middle fossa and, in combination with an endonasal transpterygoid approach, accessing the anteromedial aspect of Meckel’s cave.
The EATT approach to Meckel’s cave and the middle cranial fossa is technically feasible and confers certain advantages in specific clinical situations. The approach might complement current surgical approaches for lesions of Meckel’s cave and could be ideal for lesions that are lateral to the trigeminal ganglion in Meckel’s cave or extend from the maxillary sinus, infratemporal fossa, or pterygopalatine fossa into the middle cranial fossa, Meckel’s cave, and cavernous sinus, such as schwannomas, meningiomas, and sinonasal tumors and perineural spread of cutaneous malignancy.