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Mahmoud Messerer, Julie Dubourg, Ghislaine Saint-Pierre, Emmanuel Jouanneau and Marc Sindou

Object

The cavernous sinus and surrounding regions—specifically the Meckel cave, posterior sector of the cavernous sinus itself, and the upper part of the petroclival region—are the location of a large variety of lesions that require individual consideration regarding treatment strategy. These regions may be reached for biopsy by a percutaneous needle inserted through the foramen ovale. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous biopsy in a consecutive series of 50 patients referred for surgery between 1991 and 2010.

Methods

Seven biopsies (14%) were unproductive and 43 (86%) were productive, among which 28 lesions subsequently underwent histopathological examination during a second (open) surgery. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the procedure, results from surgery were compared with those from the biopsy.

Results

Sensitivity of the percutaneous biopsy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.52–0.98), specificity was 1 (95% CI 0.79–1), and κ coefficient was 0.81.

Conclusions

Because of its valuable diagnostic accuracy, percutaneous biopsy of the cavernous sinus and surrounding regions should be performed in patients with parasellar masses when neuroimaging does not provide sufficient information of a histopathological nature. This procedure would enable patients to obtain the most appropriate therapy, such as resective surgery, corticosteroids, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or radiosurgery.

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Moncef Berhouma, M.Sc., Timothee Jacquesson, M.Sc., Lucie Abouaf, M.Sc., Alain Vighetto, Ph.D. and Emmanuel Jouanneau

Object

While several approaches have been described for optic nerve decompression, the endoscopic endonasal route is gaining favor because it provides excellent exposure of the optic canal and the orbital apex in a minimally invasive manner. Very few studies have detailed the experience with nontraumatic optic nerve decompressions, whereas traumatic cases have been widely documented. Herein, the authors describe their preliminary experience with endoscopic endonasal decompression for nontraumatic optic neuropathies (NONs) to determine the procedure’s efficacy and delineate its potential indications and limits.

Methods

The medical reports of patients who had undergone endoscopic endonasal optic nerve and orbital apex decompression for NONs at the Lyon University Neurosurgical Hospital in the period from January 2012 to March 2014 were reviewed. For all cases, clinical and imaging data on the underlying pathology and the patient, including demographics, preoperative and 6-month postoperative ophthalmological assessment results, symptom duration, operative details with video debriefing, as well as the immediate and delayed postoperative course, were collected from the medical records.

Results

Eleven patients underwent endoscopic endonasal decompression for NON in the multidisciplinary skull base surgery unit of the Lyon University Neurosurgical Hospital during the 27-month study period. The mean patient age was 53.4 years, and there was a clear female predominance (8 females and 3 males). Among the underlying pathologies were 4 sphenoorbital meningiomas (36%), 3 optic nerve meningiomas (27%), and 1 each of trigeminal neuroma (9%), orbital apex meningioma (9%), ossifying fibroma (9%), and inflammatory pseudotumor of the orbit (9%). Fifty-four percent of the patients had improved visual acuity at the 6-month follow-up. Only 1 patient whose sphenoorbital meningioma had been treated at the optic nerve atrophy stage continued to worsen despite surgical decompression. The 2 patients presenting with preoperative papilledema totally recovered. One case of postoperative epistaxis was successfully treated using balloon inflation, and 1 case of air swelling of the orbit spontaneously resolved.

Conclusions

Endoscopic endonasal optic nerve decompression is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive technique affording the restoration of visual function in patients with nontraumatic compressive processes of the orbital apex and optic nerve. The timing of decompression remains crucial, and patients should undergo such a procedure early in the disease course before optic atrophy.

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Marc Sindou, Ernesto Wydh, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Mustapha Nebbal and Thomas Lieutaud

Object

The authors report on the long-term outcome in 100 consecutive patients with meningiomas arising from the cavernous sinus (CS) with compressive extension outside the CS. The treatment in all cases was surgery alone without adjuvant radiosurgery or radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of patients in whom surgery alone was able to produce long-term tumor control.

Methods

All 100 patients harbored meningiomas with supra- and/or laterocavernous extension, and 27 had petro-clival extension. Surgery was performed via frontopterionotemporal craniotomy associated with orbital and/or zygomatic osteotomy in 97 patients. Proximal control of the internal carotid artery at the foramen lacerum was undertaken in 65 patients; the paraclinoid carotid segment was exposed extradurally at the space made by the anterior clinoidectomy in 81 patients. For the petroclival tumor extension, a second-stage surgery was performed via a presigmoid–retro-labyrinthine or retrosigmoid approach in 13 and 14 patients, respectively.

Results

The mortality rate was 5% and two patients had severe hemiplegic or aphasic sequelae. The creation or aggravation of disorders in vision, ocular motility, or trigeminal function occurred in 19, 29, and 24% of patients respectively, with a significantly higher rate of complications when resection was performed inside the CS (p < 0.05).

Gross-total removal of both the extra- and intracavernous portions was achieved in 12 patients (Group 1), removal of the extracavernous portions with only a partial resection of the intracavernous portion in 28 patients (Group 2), and removal only of the extracavernous portions was performed in 60 patients (Group 3). The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 20 years (mean 8.3 years). There was no tumor recurrence in Group 1. In the 83 surviving patients in Groups 2 and 3 combined, the tumor remnant did not regrow in 72 patients (86.7%); regrowth was noted in 11 (13.3%).

Conclusions

The results suggest that there is no significant oncological benefit in performing surgery within the CS. Because entering the CS entails a significantly higher risk of complications, radiosurgical treatment should be reserved for remnants with secondary growth and clinical manifestations.

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Mahmoud Messerer, Giulia Cossu, Roy Thomas Daniel and Emmanuel Jouanneau

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Jacqueline Trouillas, Laurent Daniel, Marie-Paule Guigard, Soutsakhone Tong, Joanny Gouvernet, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Michel Jan, Gilles Perrin, Georges Fischer, Antoine Tabarin, Geneviève Rougon and Dominique Figarella-Branger

Object. Pituitary adenomas are usually benign tumors; however, some behave aggressively and metastasize. Until now, no specific marker of aggressive behavior or malignancy has been found. The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which is highly expressed in embryonic tissues such as the brain and pituitary, is detected in some neuronal and neuroendocrine tumors. Because polysialylation has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and migration, polysialylated NCAM expression has been considered as a prognostic marker in such tumors.

Methods. In the present study, the authors analyzed polysialylated NCAM expression in 82 pituitary tumors from humans: 49 secreting adenomas, 32 nonfunctioning adenomas, and one growth hormone and prolactin—secreting carcinoma associated with acromegaly and spinal and liver metastases. Based on immunohistochemical analyses, the tumors were classified as somatotropic (22 tumors), prolactinoma (14 tumors), corticotropic (17 tumors), and gonadotropic or so-called null cell adenomas (28 tumors). Assessment of polysialylated NCAM was performed using three different methods (immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with a specific mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin M (Men B) that recognizes polysialic acid on NCAM. Tumoral NCAM expression was also evaluated with the aid of immunohistochemical analysis. Using this method, NCAM and polysialylated NCAM were studied in six healthy pituitaries. In addition, corrrelations were investigated using three statistical methods (chi-square test, nonparametric Mann—Whitney U-test, and principal component analysis) to compare tumoral polysialylated NCAM expression and seven parameters (tumor size and type, intrasphenoidal or cavernous sinus invasion, Ki-67 index, mitoses, and patient age and sex).

Neural cell adhesion molecules were expressed in the healthy anterior pituitary and in all tumors. In contrast, polysialylated NCAM was not found in the healthy pituitary gland, but was expressed in 46.3% of typical pituitary tumors and in 85% of the tumors selected as highly aggressive, including one carcinoma and three tumors with histological characteristics that raised suspicion of malignancy. There was no significant correlation between polysialylated NCAM expression and tumor size, tumor type, Ki-67 index, mitoses, or patient age and sex. In contrast, the expression of polysialylated NCAM, which was sensitive to endoneuraminidase-N treatment, was strongly correlated with tumor invasion (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions. In pituitary tumors in humans, expression of polysialylated NCAM is strongly related to tumor invasion and confirms the clinical diagnosis of aggressiveness.

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Mahmoud Messerer, Juan Carlos De battista, Gérald Raverot, Sebouh Kassis, Julie Dubourg, Veronique Lapras, Jacqueline Trouillas, Gilles Perrin and Emmanuel Jouanneau

Object

Because of their size and lateral extension, total removal of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) remains a challenge and postoperative tumor remnants are frequent. Endoscopy has improved the surgeon's view; however, its superiority in terms of surgical outcome remains undetermined. The authors' aim in this study was to compare the clinical results and morbidity between microscopic and endoscopic techniques in 164 patients with NFPAs.

Methods

Tumoral (3D MR imaging), endocrinological, and ophthalmological results and morbidity were compared between 2 groups of 82 patients with newly diagnosed NFPAs surgically treated via either a sublabial microscopic approach (Group B) or a fully endonasal endoscopic technique (Group A).

Results

The groups showed no difference in terms of clinical features, tumor size, or cavernous sinus invasion (p > 0.05). One year postoperatively, the quality of resection was significantly improved in Group A (gross-total removal [GTR]: 74% vs 50% in Group B, p = 0.002) with greater control of lateral extension (Knosp Grade 2: GTR 88.2% vs 47.8% in Group B, p = 0.02; Knosp Grade 3: 67.9% vs 16.7% in Group B, p < 0.001) and suprasellar extension (tumor height 20–30 mm: GTR 76% vs 53% in Group B, p = 0.01). Endocrinological outcome in patients with a partial deficiency in anterior pituitary function preoperatively was significantly better in Group A (improvement 56% vs 25% in Group B, stabilization 22% vs 46%, and aggravation 22% vs 29%; p = 0.01). Among the ophthalmologically symptomatic patients, 100% from Group A improved compared with 93% in Group B (p = 0.35). Lastly, no significant difference was found regarding morbidity. These data were supported by the literature in which the GTR rate is consistently higher for endoscopy compared with microscopy.

Conclusions

In this large series of patients with NFPAs, endoscopy improved the quality of resection and endocrinological outcome. Larger studies focusing on the impact of these promising results on the long-term recurrence of NFPAs are warranted.

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Timothee Jacquesson, Fang-Chang Yeh, Sandip Panesar, Jessica Barrios, Arnaud Attyé, Carole Frindel, Francois Cotton, Paul Gardner, Emmanuel Jouanneau and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda

OBJECTIVE

Diffusion imaging tractography has allowed the in vivo description of brain white matter. One of its applications is preoperative planning for brain tumor resection. Due to a limited spatial and angular resolution, it is difficult for fiber tracking to delineate fiber crossing areas and small-scale structures, in particular brainstem tracts and cranial nerves. New methods are being developed but these involve extensive multistep tractography pipelines including the patient-specific design of multiple regions of interest (ROIs). The authors propose a new practical full tractography method that could be implemented in routine presurgical planning for skull base surgery.

METHODS

A Philips MRI machine provided diffusion-weighted and anatomical sequences for 2 healthy volunteers and 2 skull base tumor patients. Tractography of the full brainstem, the cerebellum, and cranial nerves was performed using the software DSI Studio, generalized-q-sampling reconstruction, orientation distribution function (ODF) of fibers, and a quantitative anisotropy–based generalized deterministic algorithm. No ROI or extensive manual filtering of spurious fibers was used. Tractography rendering was displayed in a tridimensional space with directional color code. This approach was also tested on diffusion data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database.

RESULTS

The brainstem, the cerebellum, and the cisternal segments of most cranial nerves were depicted in all participants. In cases of skull base tumors, the tridimensional rendering permitted the visualization of the whole anatomical environment and cranial nerve displacement, thus helping the surgical strategy.

CONCLUSIONS

As opposed to classical ROI-based methods, this novel full tractography approach could enable routine enhanced surgical planning or brain imaging for skull base tumors.

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Sophie Peeters, Mélanie Pagès, Guillaume Gauchotte, Catherine Miquel, Stéphanie Cartalat-Carel, Jean-Sébastien Guillamo, Laurent Capelle, Jean-Yves Delattre, Patrick Beauchesne, Marc Debouverie, Denys Fontaine, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Jean Stecken, Philippe Menei, Olivier De Witte, Philippe Colin, Didier Frappaz, Thierry Lesimple, Luc Bauchet, Manuel Lopes, Laurence Bozec, Elisabeth Moyal, Christophe Deroulers, Pascale Varlet, Marc Zanello, Fabrice Chretien, Catherine Oppenheim, Hugues Duffau, Luc Taillandier and Johan Pallud

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to provide insight into the influence of gliomas on gestational outcomes, the impact of pregnancy on gliomas, and the identification of patients at risk.

METHODS

In this multiinstitutional retrospective study, the authors identified 52 pregnancies in 50 women diagnosed with a glioma.

RESULTS

For gliomas known prior to pregnancy (n = 24), we found the following: 1) An increase in the quantified imaging growth rates occurred during pregnancy in 87% of cases. 2) Clinical deterioration occurred in 38% of cases, with seizures alone resolving after delivery in 57.2% of cases. 3) Oncological treatments were immediately performed after delivery in 25% of cases. For gliomas diagnosed during pregnancy (n = 28), we demonstrated the following: 1) The tumor was discovered during the second and third trimesters in 29% and 54% of cases, respectively, with seizures being the presenting symptom in 68% of cases. 2) The quantified imaging growth rates did not significantly decrease after delivery and before oncological treatment. 3) Clinical deterioration resolved after delivery in 21.4% of cases. 4) Oncological treatments were immediately performed after delivery in 70% of cases. Gliomas with a high grade of malignancy, negative immunoexpression of alpha-internexin, or positive immunoexpression for p53 were more likely to be associated with tumor progression during pregnancy. Deliveries were all uneventful (cesarean section in 54.5% of cases and vaginal delivery in 45.5%), and the infants were developmentally normal.

CONCLUSIONS

When a woman harboring a glioma envisions a pregnancy, or when a glioma is discovered in a pregnant patient, the authors suggest informing her and her partner that pregnancy may impact the evolution of the glioma clinically and radiologically. They strongly advise a multidisciplinary approach to management.

■ CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: association; study design: case series; evidence: Class IV.