Andrew B. Boucher and Joshua J. Chern
Elizabeth N. Alford, Lauren E. Rotman, Matthew S. Erwood, Robert A. Oster, Matthew C. Davis, H. Bruce C. Pittman, H. Evan Zeiger and Winfield S. Fisher III
The purpose of this study was to describe the development of a novel prognostic score, the Subdural Hematoma in the Elderly (SHE) score. The SHE score is intended to predict 30-day mortality in elderly patients (those > 65 years of age) with an acute, chronic, or mixed-density subdural hematoma (SDH) after minor, or no, prior trauma.
The authors used the Prognosis Research Strategy group methods to develop the clinical prediction model. The training data set included patients with acute, chronic, and mixed-density SDH. Based on multivariate analyses from a large data set, in addition to review of the extant literature, 3 components to the score were selected: age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and SDH volume. Patients are given 1 point if they are over 80 years old, 1 point for an admission GCS score of 5–12, 2 points for an admission GCS score of 3–4, and 1 point for SDH volume > 50 ml. The sum of points across all categories determines the SHE score.
The 30-day mortality rate steadily increased as the SHE score increased for all SDH acuities. For patients with an acute SDH, the 30-day mortality rate was 3.2% for SHE score of 0, and the rate increased to 13.1%, 32.7%, 95.7%, and 100% for SHE scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The model was most accurate for acute SDH (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.94), although it still performed well for chronic (AUC = 0.80) and mixed-density (AUC = 0.87) SDH.
The SHE score is a simple clinical grading scale that accurately stratifies patients’ risk of mortality based on age, admission GCS score, and SDH volume. Use of the SHE score could improve counseling of patients and their families, allow for standardization of clinical treatment protocols, and facilitate clinical research studies in SDH.
Elizabeth N. Alford, Betsy D. Hopson, Frederick Safyanov, Anastasia Arynchyna, Robert J. Bollo, Todd C. Hankinson, Brandon G. Rocque and Jeffrey P. Blount
Neurosurgical management preferences related to myelomeningocele (MMC) care demonstrate significant variability. The authors sought to evaluate variability in practice patterns across a group of senior pediatric neurosurgeons. The purpose of this study was to identify the extent of variability and of consensus with regard to neurosurgical management of MMC and associated hydrocephalus, Chiari II malformation, and tethered spinal cord.
A 43-question survey was distributed electronically to the members of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons (ASPN). The survey covered domains such as clinic case volume, newborn management, hydrocephalus management, transition to adulthood, clinical indications for shunt revision, Chiari II malformation decompression (C2MD), and tethered cord release (TCR). Ninety responses were received from 200 active ASPN members, for an overall response rate of 45%.
The majority (58%) of respondents closed 5–15 new cases of open MMC per year. Nearly all (98%) respondents perform back closure within 48 hours of birth, with the majority imbricating the placode and striving for a 3- to 4-layer closure. The most consistent indications for surgical intervention in early hydrocephalus were CSF leak from the back (92%), progressive ventricular enlargement (89%), and brainstem symptoms, including apnea/bradycardia (81%), stridor (81%), and dysphagia (81%). Eighty percent of respondents indicated that spina bifida care is delivered through multidisciplinary clinics, with neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, urology, physical therapy, and social work as the most common disciplines included. One-third of clinics see both pediatric and adult patients, one-third offer a formal transition program to adult care, and one-third have no transition program. The vast majority of respondents offer prenatal counseling (95%), referral for in utero closure (66%), and endoscopic third ventriculostomy/choroid plexus cauterization (72%). Respondents were more willing to perform shunt revision for symptoms alone than for image changes alone. An asymptomatic broken shunt without ventricular enlargement produced responses evenly divided between observation, intervention, and further investigation. Operative shunt exploration was always performed before C2MD by 56% of respondents and performed sometimes by 40% of respondents. Symptoms of brainstem dysfunction were the strongest clinical triggers reported for C2MD, while declines in urinary continence, leg strength or sensation, or ambulation were the most consistent thresholds for TCR.
Significant disparities exist surrounding key areas of decision making regarding treatment for patients with MMC, though there are central areas of agreement among ASPN members. Additionally, there is significant variation in the clinical management of chronic hydrocephalus, C2MD, and TCR, underscoring the need for further research into these specific areas.