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Elisabeth Kaufmann, Kai Bötzel, Christian Vollmar, Jan-Hinnerk Mehrkens, and Soheyl Noachtar


In the absence of a standard or guideline for the treatment of epilepsy patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT), systematic single-center investigations are essential to establish effective approaches. Here, the authors report on the long-term results of one of the largest single-center ANT DBS cohorts.


The outcome data of 23 consecutive patients with transventricularly implanted electrodes were retrospectively analyzed with regard to adverse events, lead placement, stimulation-related side effects, and changes in seizure frequency. Depression and quality-of-life scores were collected in a subgroup of 9 patients.


All but 2 patients initially underwent bilateral implantation, and 84.4% of all DBS leads were successfully located within the ANT. The mean follow-up time was 46.57 ± 23.20 months. A seizure reduction > 50% was documented in 73.9% of patients, and 34.6% achieved an Engel class I outcome. In 3 patients, clinical response was achieved by switching the electrode contact or changing from the monopolar to bipolar stimulation mode. Unilateral implantation seemed ineffective, whereas bilateral stimulation with successful ANT implantation only on one side led to a clinical response. Double stimulation with additional vagus nerve stimulation was safe. Changes in cycling mode or stimulation amplitude influenced therapy tolerability and, only to a lesser extent, seizure frequency. Side effects were rare and typically vanished by lowering the stimulation amplitude or changing the active electrode contact. Furthermore, depression and aspects of quality of life significantly improved with ANT DBS treatment.


The transventricular approach as well as double stimulation proved safe. The anteroventral ANT appeared to be the most efficacious stimulation site. This systematic investigation with reluctant medication changes allowed for the development of a better idea of the association between parameter changes and outcome in ANT DBS patients, but larger samples are still needed to assess the potential of bipolar stimulation and distinct cycling frequencies. Furthermore, more multifaceted and objective assessments of treatment outcome are needed to fully assess the effects of ANT DBS treatment.

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Inga K. Koerte, David Kaufmann, Elisabeth Hartl, Sylvain Bouix, Ofer Pasternak, Marek Kubicki, Alexander Rauscher, David K. B. Li, Shiroy B. Dadachanji, Jack A. Taunton, Lorie A. Forwell, Andrew M. Johnson, Paul S. Echlin, and Martha E. Shenton


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repetitive head impacts on white matter integrity that were sustained during 1 Canadian Interuniversity Sports (CIS) ice hockey season, using advanced diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).


Twenty-five male ice hockey players between 20 and 26 years of age (mean age 22.24 ± 1.59 years) participated in this study. Participants underwent pre- and postseason 3-T MRI, including DTI. Group analyses were performed using paired-group tract-based spatial statistics to test for differences between preseason and postseason changes.


Tract-based spatial statistics revealed an increase in trace, radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) over the course of 1 season. Compared with preseason data, postseason images showed higher trace, AD, and RD values in the right precentral region, the right corona radiata, and the anterior and posterior limb of the internal capsule. These regions involve parts of the corticospinal tract, the corpus callosum, and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. No significant differences were observed between preseason and postseason for fractional anisotropy.


Diffusion tensor imaging revealed changes in white matter diffusivity in male ice hockey players over the course of 1 season. The origin of these findings needs to be elucidated.