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Eli T. Sayegh, Shayan Fakurnejad, Taemin Oh, Orin Bloch and Andrew T. Parsa

Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain tumor resection are prone to experiencing seizures, which can have debilitating medical, neurological, and psychosocial effects. A controversial issue in neurosurgery is the common practice of administering perioperative anticonvulsant prophylaxis to these patients despite a paucity of supporting data in the literature. The foreseeable benefits of this strategy must be balanced against potential adverse effects and interactions with critical medications such as chemotherapeutic agents and corticosteroids. Multiple disparate metaanalyses have been published on this topic but have not been applied into clinical practice, and, instead, personal preference frequently determines practice patterns in this area of management. Therefore, to select the current best available evidence to guide clinical decision making, the literature was evaluated to identify meta-analyses that investigated the efficacy and/or safety of anticonvulsant prophylaxis in this patient population. Six meta-analyses published between 1996 and 2011 were included in the present study. The Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses and Oxman-Guyatt methodological quality assessment tools were used to score these meta-analyses, and the Jadad decision algorithm was applied to determine the highest-quality meta-analysis. According to this analysis, 2 metaanalyses were deemed to be the current best available evidence, both of which conclude that prophylactic treatment does not improve seizure control in these patients. Therefore, this management strategy should not be routinely used.

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Matthew Z. Sun, Taemin Oh, Michael E. Ivan, Aaron J. Clark, Michael Safaee, Eli T. Sayegh, Gurvinder Kaur, Andrew T. Parsa and Orin Bloch

OBJECT

There are few and conflicting reports on the effects of delayed initiation of chemoradiotherapy on the survival of patients with glioblastoma. The standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma is concurrent radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy after maximal safe resection; however, the optimal timing of such therapy is poorly defined. Given the lack of consensus in the literature, the authors performed a retrospective analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to investigate the effect of time from surgery to initiation of therapy on survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

METHODS

Patients with primary glioblastoma diagnosed since 2005 and treated according to the standard of care were identified from TCGA database. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to compare overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) between groups stratified by postoperative delay to initiation of radiation treatment.

RESULTS

There were 218 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma with known time to initiation of radiotherapy identified in the database. The median duration until therapy was 27 days. Delay to radiotherapy longer than the median was not associated with worse PFS (HR = 0.918, p = 0.680) or OS (HR = 1.135, p = 0.595) in multivariate analysis when controlling for age, sex, KPS score, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients in the highest and lowest quartiles for delay to therapy (≤ 20 days vs ≥ 36 days) did not statistically differ in PFS (p = 0.667) or OS (p = 0.124). The small subset of patients with particularly long delays (> 42 days) demonstrated worse OS (HR = 1.835, p = 0.019), but not PFS (p = 0.74).

CONCLUSIONS

Modest delay in initiation of postoperative chemotherapy and radiation does not appear to be associated with worse PFS or OS in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, while significant delay longer than 6 weeks may be associated with worse OS.

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Michael C. Oh, Eli T. Sayegh, Michael Safaee, Matthew Z. Sun, Gurvinder Kaur, Joseph M. Kim, Derick Aranda, Annette M. Molinaro, Nalin Gupta and Andrew T. Parsa

Object

Ependymoma is a common CNS tumor in children, with spinal cord ependymomas making up 13.1% of all ependymomas in this age group. The clinical features that affect prognosis in pediatric spinal cord ependymomas are not well understood. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine whether a tumor location along the spinal cord is prognostically significant in children undergoing surgery for spinal cord ependymomas.

Methods

A PubMed search was performed to identify all papers that contained data on patients with spinal cord ependymomas. Only pediatric patients (age < 18 years) who underwent resection with a clearly reported tumor location were included in the analysis. Myxopapillary tumors were excluded from study. Tumor location was subdivided into 6 regions: cervicomedullary, cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracic, thoracolumbar, and conus medullaris. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the effects of tumor location on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results

Fifty-eight patients who underwent resection of spinal cord ependymomas were identified. Ependymomas were located all along the spinal cord but occurred with the highest frequency in the cervical region (29.3%). Progression-free survival was significantly better in patients with tumors arising in the upper portion of the spinal cord (p = 0.031), which remained significant in the multivariate Cox regression analysis (p < 0.05). Moreover, OS was significantly better in patients with upper spinal cord ependymomas than in those harboring ependymomas in the lower spinal cord (p = 0.048).

Conclusions

Although more common in adults, spinal ependymomas can occur anywhere along the spinal cord in the pediatric population; however, tumors occurring in the lower half of the spinal cord carry a worse prognosis with shorter PFS and OS. By comparison, ependymomas in the upper spinal cord recur later and less frequently, with little or no mortality in this patient group.