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Abraham B. Rubinstein, David Loven, Abraham Geier, Eli Reichenthal and Natan Gadoth

✓ Intracranial meningiomas from 51 surgical patients consecutively treated during an 18-month period were evaluated for the presence of receptors to progesterone and estrogen. Thirty-eight patients underwent initial resection during this time and 13 underwent reoperation for recurrent disease. With positivity defined as receptor levels greater than 10 fmol/mg of cytosol protein, 84% of all the meningiomas were positive for progesterone receptors, whereas only 33% were positive for estrogen receptors. Among the recurrent meningiomas, 92% showed evidence of progesterone receptors and 54% of estrogen receptors; these figures were not significantly different from the corresponding incidence of 82% and 26%, respectively, among the initially excised tumors. However, the mean concentration of progesterone receptors in the recurrent tumor group was significantly higher when compared to the concentration in the initially excised group (p < 0.02).

Twenty meningiomas (39%) were considered to be radiation-induced, since they were removed from patients who had received scalp irradiation during childhood. The incidence and concentration of receptors in the radiation-induced tumors were generally comparable to those in the spontaneous meningiomas.

This study confirms previous reports of a high incidence of hormone receptors, mainly for progesterone, in meningiomas. In addition, it shows that in recurrent meningiomas these receptors persist and even increase. The results therefore support hormone treatment for nonresectable meningiomas, especially at recurrence.

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Zeev Feldman, Boris Gurevitch, Alan A. Artru, Arieh Oppenheim, Esther Shohami, Eli Reichenthal and Yoram Shapira

✓ Excitatory amino acids (EAA), mainly glutamate and aspartate, are released in excessive amounts from terminals of ischemic or traumatically injured neurons. These excessive levels of EAAs initiate a cascade of events believed to lead to secondary delayed damage to the surrounding brain. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists MK-801 and ketamine are reported to suppress excessive EAA release and to attenuate the development of focal brain edema following neuronal injury. Magnesium is also reported to work at the postsynaptic receptor to reduce the neurotoxic effect of glutamate. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of postinjury treatment with Mg++ on brain edema and neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury.

Sixty-nine rats that survived halothane anesthesia and closed head trauma (CHT) were randomly assigned to one of seven experimental groups: sham, CHT, and CHT with administration of Mg++ 1 hour postinjury. At 48 hours, brain tissue Mg++ concentration (calculated from optical density using a standard curve) was significantly increased compared to baseline levels (10.06 ± 2.44 mg/g vs. 6.83 ± 0.81 mg/g, p < 0.01 calculated by one-way analysis of variance). Also at 48 hours postinjury, brain tissue specific gravity in the contused hemisphere of Mg++-treated rats was significantly greater than that in the contused hemisphere of untreated rats, indicating attenuation of brain edema formation by Mg++. The neurological severity score (NSS) of rats treated with Mg++ improved significantly at both 18 and 48 hours, compared to baseline values obtained 1 hour after CHT but prior to administration of Mg++ (11.2 ± 2.5 vs. 15.2 ± 4.1, p = 0.03; and 12.3 ± 6.1 vs. 17.3 ± 3.6, p = 0.004, respectively). In the untreated groups, the NSS at 18 and 48 hours was not significantly different from baseline values (that is, no neurological improvement). The present study indicates that postinjury treatment with Mg++ attenuates brain edema formation and improves neurological outcome after experimental CHT.

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Zeev Feldman, Serj Zachari, Eli Reichenthal, Alan A. Artru and Yoram Shapira

✓ Rapid infusion of 0.25 ml/g of 0.9% saline over 30 minutes has been shown to have no effect on electrolyte balance, neurological severity score (NSS), or brain edema, following closed head trauma (CHT). Rapid infusion of the same volume of 5% dextrose solution decreased blood sodium concentration, increased edema, and decreased NSS following CHT. In the present study the authors examined the effect of rapid infusion (30 minutes) of smaller volumes of 5% dextrose (0.08 ml/g and 0.16 ml/g) and of 0.25 ml/g lactated Ringer's solution on blood electrolyte concentrations, plasma osmolality, brain edema, and NSS. The purposes of this study were to determine whether rapid infusion of a large volume of lactated Ringer's solution could be given after CHT without increasing mortality or brain edema or producing electrolyte disturbances, and whether small volumes of 5% dextrose could be infused with few or none of the deleterious effects expected from large volumes of 5% dextrose. One hundred eighteen rats, which survived halothane anesthesia and CHT, were randomly assigned to one of 15 experimental groups. Fluids were administered beginning 1 hour after scalp incision or CHT. The NSS, extent of edema, blood electrolyte concentrations, and plasma osmolality in the groups treated with lactated Ringer's solution were not significantly different from those values in the nontreated groups. In addition, the mortality rate after CHT was not increased by administration of lactated Ringer's solution. The groups treated with 5% dextrose solution showed a significantly higher mortality rate, but the NSSs of the surviving rats were not different from controls. None of the groups treated with 0.16 ml/g 5% dextrose solution survived 24 hours. Although blood glucose concentration increased to 1126 ± 102 g% (mean ± standard deviation) and 1568 ± 283 g% and blood sodium concentration decreased to 110.4 ± 4.6 mEq/L and 92.0 ± 5.2 mEq/L in the groups treated with 0.08 ml/g and 0.16 ml/g of 5% dextrose solution, respectively, plasma osmolality was normal and no significant difference could be found between the brain tissue specific gravity of animals in the nontreated and 5% dextrose treatment groups. It is concluded that in the CHT model used in this study, the large volume of lactated Ringer's solution did not affect blood electrolyte concentration, neurological outcome, or formation of brain edema, whereas smaller volumes of 5% dextrose solution increased blood glucose and decreased blood sodium concentrations, did not affect plasma osmolality, and had a deleterious effect on neurological outcome.

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Abraham B. Rubinstein, Mordechai N. Shalit, Mathias L. Cohen, Uri Zandbank and Eli Reichenthal

✓ The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological findings in 201 patients with intracranial meningiomas operated on in the period 1978 to 1982. Forty-three of the patients (21.4%) had at some previous time received radiation treatment to their scalp, the majority for tinea capitis. The findings in these 43 irradiated patients were compared with those in the 158 non-irradiated patients. Several distinctive clinical and histological features were identified in the irradiated group, which suggest that radiation-induced meningiomas can be defined as a separate nosological subgroup.

The use of irradiation in large numbers of children with tinea capitis in the era prior to the availability of griseofulvin may be responsible for a significantly increased incidence of intracranial meningiomas.

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Eli Reichenthal, Mathias L. Cohen, Elias Schujman, Nachman Eynan and Mordechai Shalit

✓ A case of tuberculous brain abscess in a 52-year-old woman is presented. The computerized tomographic (CT) scan demonstrated a multilocular space-occupying lesion in the right parietal area, surrounded by a thick hyperdense enhancing rim. It is suggested that a relatively long clinical history together with the appearance of a thick-walled abscess-like lesion on the CT scan may indicate the diagnosis of a tuberculous brain abscess.

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Eli Reichenthal, Mathias L. Cohen, Riri Manor, Gideon Marshak, Shoshana Matz and Mordechai N. Shalit

✓ A case of primary osteogenic sarcoma of the sellar and parasellar region is described. A biopsy performed through the transnasal transsphenoidal approach appears to be the best method of establishing the diagnosis in lesions in this location. A previous case, documented in the German literature, is discussed together with the case presented here.