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Elad I. Levy, Adnan H. Siddiqui, and L. Nelson Hopkins

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Giuseppe Lanzino and Pietro Ivo D'Urso

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Elad I. Levy, John D. Heiss, Michael S. Kent, Charles J. Riedel, and Edward H. Oldfield

U The pathophysiology of syrinx development is controversial. The authors report on a patient with progressive cervical myelopathy and a Chiari I malformation in whom spinal cord swelling preceded, by a few months, the development of a syrinx in the same location. The patient underwent a craniocervical decompressive procedure and duraplasty, and complete resolution of cord swelling and syringomyelia was achieved. This report is consistent with the theory that patients with Chiari I malformation have increased transmural flow of cerebrospinal fluid, which causes spinal cord swelling that later coalesces into a syrinx. The pathophysiology of syrinx development from spinal cord edema and the success of surgical decompressive treatments that do not invade the central nervous system support the prompt treatment of patients with spinal cord edema who are at risk for the development of a syrinx.

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Robert D. Ecker, Tsz Lau, Elad I. Levy, and L. Nelson Hopkins


There is no known standard 30-day morbidity and mortality rate for high-risk patients undergoing carotid artery (CA) angioplasty and stent (CAS) placement. The high-risk registries and the Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy, Carotid Revascularization using Endarterectomy or Stenting Systems, and European Long-term Carotid Artery Stenting trials report different rates of morbidity and mortality, and each high-risk cohort has a different risk profile. The applicability of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) results from North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial/Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (NASCET/ACAS) remains uncertain, as most clinical CAS placement series reported to date typically included patients who would not have qualified for those studies. At the University at Buffalo, the same neurosurgeons perform triage in patients with CA disease and perform both CEA and CAS insertion. The authors review morbidity and mortality rates in this practice model.


Diagnosis-related group codes were used to search the authors’ practice database for patients who had undergone a completed CA intervention solely for the indication of atherosclerotic disease. One hundred twenty patients (129 vessels) treated with CAS surgery and 95 patients (100 vessels) treated with CEA met these criteria. In the CAS placement group, 78% of the patients would not have met NASCET/ACAS inclusion criteria. Demographic and clinical data for both groups were recorded on a spreadsheet for analysis.

At 30 days, one patient in the CEA group and two in the CAS group had died. Stroke occurred in one patient in the CAS group and none in the CEA group. Myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in one patient who underwent CAS surgery compared with three undergoing CEA. Composite incidence of stroke/death/MI was 3.3% in the CAS group and 3.2% in the CEA group.


In a practice in which surgeons perform both CEA and CAS surgery, the event rates for the CAS surgery equivalent to NASCET and ACAS rates for CEA can be achieved, even in high-risk NASCET/ACAS-ineligible patients in 78% of the CAS cases.

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Stanley H. Kim, Adnan I. Qureshi, Elad I. Levy, Ricardo A. Hanel, Amir M. Siddiqui, and L. Nelson Hopkins

✓ The authors report a case of emergency carotid artery (CA) stent placement for a symptomatic acute CA occlusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This 43-year-old man underwent a right-sided CEA for an asymptomatic 80% CA stenosis detected using duplex ultrasound testing. The patient experienced hypotension and possibly a myocardial infarction intraoperatively and a left hemiplegia immediately postoperatively. He was referred to the authors' institution for consideration of emergency coronary intervention and evaluation of stroke. A computerized tomography scan of the head demonstrated subtle early ischemic changes in the right posterior parietal region. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the right common CA (CCA) at the CA bifurcation. Two coronary stents (Magic Wall; Boston Scientific Scimed, Maple Grove, MN) were placed in tandem in the right CCA and internal CA (ICA), overlapping at the proximal cervical ICA. Complete recanalization of the CA was achieved, and the patient made a clinically significant recovery. Diagnostic angiography can provide important information about CA and intracranial circulation that will aid in the evaluation of postoperative stroke after CEA. Stent placement should be considered as an alternative method of treatment for acute CA occlusion or dissection following CEA.

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Muhammad Waqas, Andre Monteiro, Justin M. Cappuzzo, Vincent M. Tutino, and Elad I. Levy


The paradigm for intracranial aneurysm (IA) treatment is shifting toward a hybrid approach involving open and endovascular techniques. The authors chronicled the evolution of IA treatment by retrospectively examining a large series of IA cases treated by a single dual-trained neurosurgeon, focusing on evolving technology relative to the choice of treatment options, perioperative morbidity, and mortality.


The aneurysm database at the authors’ institution was searched to identify consecutive patients treated with endovascular or open microsurgical approaches by one neurosurgeon during an 18-year time span. Patients were included regardless of IA rupture status, location or morphology, or treatment modality. Data collected were baseline clinical characteristics, aneurysm size, treatment modality, operative complications, in-hospital mortality, and retreatment rate.


A total of 1858 patients with 2002 IA treatments were included in the study. Three-hundred fifty IAs (17.5%) were ruptured. Open microsurgery was performed in 504 aneurysms (25.2%) and endovascular surgery in 1498 (74.8%). Endovascular IA treatments trended toward a growing use of flow diversion during the last 11 years. In-hospital mortality was 1.7% overall, including 7.0% in ruptured and 0.5% in unruptured cases. The overall complication rate was 3.3%, including 3.4% for microsurgical cases and 3.3% for endovascular cases. The rate of retreatment was 3.6% after clipping and 10.7% for endovascular treatment.


This study demonstrates complementary use of open and endovascular approaches for IA treatment. By customizing treatment to the patient, comparable rates of procedural complications, mortality, and retreatment were achieved for both endovascular and microsurgical approaches.

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Justin M. Cappuzzo, Ammad A. Baig, William Metcalf-Doetsch, Muhammad Waqas, Andre Monteiro, and Elad I. Levy


Failure to reach the cavernous sinus after multiple transvenous attempts, although rare, can be challenging for neurointerventionists. The authors sought to demonstrate technical considerations and nuances of the independent performance of a novel hybrid surgical and endovascular transpalpebral approach through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) for direct coil embolization of an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), and they review salient literature regarding the transpalpebral approach.


An illustrative case, including patient history and presentation, was reviewed. PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase databases were searched for articles published between January 1, 2000, and September 30, 2021, that reported ≥1 patient with a CCF treated endovascularly via the SOV approach. Data extracted included sample size, treatment modality, surgical technique, performing surgeon specialty, and procedure outcome. The authors’ case illustration demonstrates the technique for the hybrid transpalpebral approach. For the review, 273 unique articles were identified; 14 containing 74 treated patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Oculoplastic surgery was the most commonly involved specialty (5 of 14 studies), followed by ophthalmology (3 of 14). Coiling alone was the treatment of choice in 12 studies, with adjunctive use of Onyx (Medtronic) in 2.


The authors’ technical case description, video, illustrations, and review provide endovascular neurosurgeons with a systematic guide to conduct the procedure independently.

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Peter T. Kan, Kenneth V. Snyder, Parham Yashar, Adnan H. Siddiqui, L. Nelson Hopkins, and Elad I. Levy

Computed tomography perfusion scanning generates physiological flow parameters of the brain parenchyma, allowing differentiation of ischemic penumbra and core infarct. Perfusion maps, along with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, are used as the bases for endovascular stroke intervention at the authors' institute, regardless of the time interval from stroke onset. With case examples, the authors illustrate their perfusion-based imaging guidelines in patient selection for endovascular treatment in the setting of acute stroke.