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Editorial. Toward reducing futile recanalization in stroke: automated prediction of final infarct volume

Muhammad Waqas and Elad I. Levy

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Introduction. Neurosurgical management of stroke, organization of stroke management, and artificial intelligence applications

Elad I. Levy, Philipp Taussky, Jose E. Cohen, and Peter Kan

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Cerebrovascular surgery: evolution or obsolescence

Elad I. Levy, Adnan H. Siddiqui, and L. Nelson Hopkins

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Emergency stent placement for symptomatic acute carotid artery occlusion after endarterectomy

Case report

Stanley H. Kim, Adnan I. Qureshi, Elad I. Levy, Ricardo A. Hanel, Amir M. Siddiqui, and L. Nelson Hopkins

✓ The authors report a case of emergency carotid artery (CA) stent placement for a symptomatic acute CA occlusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This 43-year-old man underwent a right-sided CEA for an asymptomatic 80% CA stenosis detected using duplex ultrasound testing. The patient experienced hypotension and possibly a myocardial infarction intraoperatively and a left hemiplegia immediately postoperatively. He was referred to the authors' institution for consideration of emergency coronary intervention and evaluation of stroke. A computerized tomography scan of the head demonstrated subtle early ischemic changes in the right posterior parietal region. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the right common CA (CCA) at the CA bifurcation. Two coronary stents (Magic Wall; Boston Scientific Scimed, Maple Grove, MN) were placed in tandem in the right CCA and internal CA (ICA), overlapping at the proximal cervical ICA. Complete recanalization of the CA was achieved, and the patient made a clinically significant recovery. Diagnostic angiography can provide important information about CA and intracranial circulation that will aid in the evaluation of postoperative stroke after CEA. Stent placement should be considered as an alternative method of treatment for acute CA occlusion or dissection following CEA.

Open access

First reported single-surgeon transpalpebral hybrid approach for indirect cavernous carotid fistula: illustrative case

Justin M. Cappuzzo, Ammad A. Baig, William Metcalf-Doetsch, Muhammad Waqas, Andre Monteiro, and Elad I. Levy


Failure to reach the cavernous sinus after multiple transvenous attempts, although rare, can be challenging for neurointerventionists. The authors sought to demonstrate technical considerations and nuances of the independent performance of a novel hybrid surgical and endovascular transpalpebral approach through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) for direct coil embolization of an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), and they review salient literature regarding the transpalpebral approach.


An illustrative case, including patient history and presentation, was reviewed. PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase databases were searched for articles published between January 1, 2000, and September 30, 2021, that reported ≥1 patient with a CCF treated endovascularly via the SOV approach. Data extracted included sample size, treatment modality, surgical technique, performing surgeon specialty, and procedure outcome. The authors’ case illustration demonstrates the technique for the hybrid transpalpebral approach. For the review, 273 unique articles were identified; 14 containing 74 treated patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Oculoplastic surgery was the most commonly involved specialty (5 of 14 studies), followed by ophthalmology (3 of 14). Coiling alone was the treatment of choice in 12 studies, with adjunctive use of Onyx (Medtronic) in 2.


The authors’ technical case description, video, illustrations, and review provide endovascular neurosurgeons with a systematic guide to conduct the procedure independently.

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Editorial: Carotid dissections

Giuseppe Lanzino and Pietro Ivo D'Urso

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Long-term outcomes after meningioma radiosurgery: physician and patient perspectives

Douglas Kondziolka, Elad I. Levy, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger, and L. Dade Lunsford

Object. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a primary or adjuvant management approach used to treat patients with intracranial meningiomas. The goal of radiosurgery is long-term prevention of tumor growth, maintenance of the patient's neurological function, and prevention of new neurological deficits. The object of this study is to report longer-term patient outcomes.

Methods. The authors evaluated 99 consecutive patients who underwent radiosurgery for meningioma between 1987 and 1992. Evaluation was performed using serial imaging tests, clinical evaluations, and a patient survey that was administered between 5 and 10 years after radiosurgery. Four patients underwent two radiosurgery procedures for separate meningiomas. The average tumor margin dose was 16 Gy and the median tumor volume was 4.7 ml (range 0.24–24 ml). Fifty-seven patients (57%) had undergone prior resection, of which 12 procedures were considered “total.” Five patients received fractionated radiation therapy before radiosurgery. Eighty-nine patients (89%) had skull base tumors.

The clinical tumor control rate (no resection required) was 93%. Sixty-one (63%) of 97 tumors became smaller, 31 (32%) remained unchanged in size, and five (5%) were enlarged. Resection was performed in seven patients (7%), six of whom had undergone prior resection. New neurological deficits developed in five patients (5%) 3 to 31 months after radiosurgery. Twenty-seven (42%) of 65 responding patients were employed at the time of radiosurgery and 20 (74%) of these remained so. Radiosurgery was believed to have been “successful” by 67 of 70 patients who completed an outcomes questionnaire 5 to 10 years later. At least one complication was described by nine patients (14%) and in four patients the complications resolved.

Conclusions. Five to 10 years after radiosurgery, 96% of surveyed patients believed that radiosurgery provided a satisfactory outcome for their meningioma. Overall, 93% of patients required no other tumor surgery. Incidences of morbidity in this early experience were usually transitory and relatively mild. Radiosurgery provided long-term tumor control associated with high rates of neurological function preservation and patient satisfaction.

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Thirty-day morbidity and mortality rates for carotid artery intervention by surgeons who perform both carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery angioplasty and stent placement

Robert D. Ecker, Tsz Lau, Elad I. Levy, and L. Nelson Hopkins


There is no known standard 30-day morbidity and mortality rate for high-risk patients undergoing carotid artery (CA) angioplasty and stent (CAS) placement. The high-risk registries and the Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy, Carotid Revascularization using Endarterectomy or Stenting Systems, and European Long-term Carotid Artery Stenting trials report different rates of morbidity and mortality, and each high-risk cohort has a different risk profile. The applicability of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) results from North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial/Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (NASCET/ACAS) remains uncertain, as most clinical CAS placement series reported to date typically included patients who would not have qualified for those studies. At the University at Buffalo, the same neurosurgeons perform triage in patients with CA disease and perform both CEA and CAS insertion. The authors review morbidity and mortality rates in this practice model.


Diagnosis-related group codes were used to search the authors’ practice database for patients who had undergone a completed CA intervention solely for the indication of atherosclerotic disease. One hundred twenty patients (129 vessels) treated with CAS surgery and 95 patients (100 vessels) treated with CEA met these criteria. In the CAS placement group, 78% of the patients would not have met NASCET/ACAS inclusion criteria. Demographic and clinical data for both groups were recorded on a spreadsheet for analysis.

At 30 days, one patient in the CEA group and two in the CAS group had died. Stroke occurred in one patient in the CAS group and none in the CEA group. Myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in one patient who underwent CAS surgery compared with three undergoing CEA. Composite incidence of stroke/death/MI was 3.3% in the CAS group and 3.2% in the CEA group.


In a practice in which surgeons perform both CEA and CAS surgery, the event rates for the CAS surgery equivalent to NASCET and ACAS rates for CEA can be achieved, even in high-risk NASCET/ACAS-ineligible patients in 78% of the CAS cases.

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Stent placement for the treatment of nonsaccular aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system

Ricardo A. Hanel, Alan S. Boulos, Eric G. Sauvageau, Elad I. Levy, Lee R. Guterman, and L. Nelson Hopkins

Vertebrobasilar nonsaccular aneurysms represent a small subset of intracranial aneurysms and usually are among the most challenging to be treated. The aim of this article was to review the literature and summarize the experience in the treatment of these lesions with endovascular approaches. The method of stent implantation as it is performed at the authors' institution, including options available for vertebral artery access, is described. Practitioners involved in the treatment of these lesions should be aware of the potential application of intravascular stent placement as well as the associated postprocedure risks and potential complications.

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Utility of CT perfusion scanning in patient selection for acute stroke intervention: experience at University at Buffalo Neurosurgery–Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital

Peter T. Kan, Kenneth V. Snyder, Parham Yashar, Adnan H. Siddiqui, L. Nelson Hopkins, and Elad I. Levy

Computed tomography perfusion scanning generates physiological flow parameters of the brain parenchyma, allowing differentiation of ischemic penumbra and core infarct. Perfusion maps, along with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, are used as the bases for endovascular stroke intervention at the authors' institute, regardless of the time interval from stroke onset. With case examples, the authors illustrate their perfusion-based imaging guidelines in patient selection for endovascular treatment in the setting of acute stroke.