Bernt Filip Hasseleid, Torstein R. Meling, Pål Rønning, David Scheie and Eirik Helseth
Recently the relevance of Simpson resection grade as a prognostic factor for recurrence of WHO Grade I meningiomas was challenged, contradicting many previous scientific reports and traditional neurosurgical teaching. The objective of this study was to determine whether the predictive value of Simpson resection grade is outdated or remains valid with respect to meningioma recurrence and overall survival.
All patients at least 16 years old who underwent primary craniotomies for convexity meningiomas at Oslo University–affiliated hospitals (Rikshospitalet and Ullevål University Hospitals) in the period between January 1, 1990, and January 27, 2011, were included. Overall survival and retreatment-free survival rates were correlated with patient- and surgery-specific factors.
Three hundred ninety-one consecutive patients were included in the study. The median patient age was 60.1 years (range 19–92 years). The female-to-male ratio was 2.1:1. The WHO grades were Grade I in 353 (90.3%), Grade II in 22 (5.6%), and Grade III in 16 (4.1%). The follow-up rate was 100%. Median follow-up time was 7.1 years (range 0.0–20.9 years) and total observation time was 3147 patient-years. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates were 96%, 89%, and 78%, respectively. Age, sex, WHO grade, and Simpson grade were significantly associated with overall survival. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year retreatment-free survival rates were 99%, 94%, and 90%, respectively. Simpson resection grade and WHO grade were significantly associated with retreatment-free survival. The hazard ratios for retreatment after combined Simpson resection Grades II+III and IV+V were 4.9- and 13.2-times higher than after Simpson Grade I resection, respectively.
Simpson Grade I resection should continue to be the goal for convexity meningiomas.
Pål A. Rønning, Eirik Helseth, Torstein R. Meling and Tom B. Johannesen
The impact of pregnancy on survival in female patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) is unknown and controversial. The authors designed a retrospective cohort study on prospectively collected registry data to assess the influence of pregnancy and child delivery on the survival of female patients with LGG.
In Norway, the reporting of all births and cancer diagnoses to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) and the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN), respectively, is compulsory by law. Furthermore, every individual has a unique 11-digit identification number. The CRN was searched to identify all female patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or pilocytic astrocytoma who were 16–40 years of age at the time of diagnosis during the period from January 1, 1970, to December 31, 2008. Obstetrical information was obtained from the MBRN for each patient. The effect of pregnancy on survival was evaluated using a Cox model with parity as a time-dependent variable.
The authors identified 65 patients who gave birth to 95 children after an LGG diagnosis. They also identified 281 patients who did not give birth after an LGG diagnosis. The median survival was 14.3 years (95% CI 11.7–20.6 years) for the entire study population. The effect of pregnancy was insignificant in the multivariate model (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.35–1.42).
Pregnancy does not seem to have an impact on the survival of female patients with LGG.
Sayied Abdol Mohieb Hosainey, Benjamin Lassen, Eirik Helseth and Torstein R. Meling
The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of CSF disturbances before and after intracranial surgery for pediatric brain tumors in a large, contemporary, single-institution consecutive series.
All pediatric patients (those < 18 years old), from a well-defined population of 3.0 million inhabitants, who underwent craniotomies for intracranial tumors at Oslo University Hospital in Rikshospitalet between 2000 and 2010 were included. The patients were identified from the authors' prospectively collected database. A thorough review of all medical charts was performed to validate all the database data.
Included in the study were 381 consecutive craniotomies, performed on 302 patients (50.1% male, 49.9% female). The mean age of the patients in the study was 8.63 years (range 0–17.98 years). The follow-up rate was 100%. Primary craniotomies were performed in 282 cases (74%), while 99 cases (26%) were secondary craniotomies. Tumors were located supratentorially in 249 cases (65.3%), in the posterior fossa in 105 (27.6%), and in the brainstem/diencephalon in 27 (7.1%). The surgical approach was supratentorial in 260 cases (68.2%) and infratentorial in 121 (31.8%). Preoperative hydrocephalus was found in 124 cases (32.5%), and 71 (86.6%) of 82 achieved complete cure with tumor resection only. New-onset postoperative hydrocephalus was observed in 9 (3.5%) of 257 cases. The rate of postoperative CSF leaks was 6.3%.
Preoperative hydrocephalus was found in 32.5% of pediatric patients with brain tumors treated using craniotomies. Tumor resection alone cured preoperative hydrocephalus in 86.6% of cases and the incidence of new-onset hydrocephalus after craniotomy was only 3.5%.
Johan Pallud and Sophie Peeters
Pål Rønning, Eirik Helseth, Nils-Oddvar Skaga, Knut Stavem and Iver A. Langmoen
The use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been postulated to be beneficial in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), although studies investigating this hypothesis have reported conflicting results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inserting an ICP monitor on survival in patients with severe TBI.
The Oslo University Hospital trauma registry was searched for the records of all patients admitted between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2013, who fulfilled the Brain Trauma Foundation criteria for intracranial hypertension and who survived at least 24 hours after admission. The impact of ICP monitoring was investigated using both a logistic regression model and a multiple imputed, propensity score–weighted logistic regression analysis.
The study involved 1327 patients, in which 757 patients had an ICP monitor implanted. The use of ICP monitors significantly increased in the study period (p < 0.01). The 30-day overall mortality was 24.3% (322 patients), divided into 35.1% (200 patients, 95% confidence interval [CI] 31.3%–39.1%) in the group without an ICP monitor and 16.1% (122 patients, 95% CI 13.6%–18.9%) in the group with an ICP monitor. The impact of ICP monitors on 30-day mortality was found to be beneficial both in the complete case analysis logistic regression model (odds ratio [OR] 0.23, 95% CI 0.16–0.33) and in the adjusted, aggregated, propensity score–weighted imputed data sets (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.15–0.35; both p < 0.001). The sensitivity analysis indicated that the findings are robust to unmeasured confounders.
The authors found that the use of an ICP monitor is significantly associated with improved survival in patients with severe head injury.
Dag Ferner Netteland, Magnus Mejlænder-Evjensvold, Nils O. Skaga, Else Charlotte Sandset, Mads Aarhus and Eirik Helseth
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is increasingly recognized in traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its complications and effect on outcome remain undetermined. In this study, the authors characterize the complications and outcome effect of CVT in TBI patients.
In a retrospective, case-control study of patients included in the Oslo University Hospital trauma registry and radiology registry from 2008 to 2014, the authors identified TBI patients with CVT (cases) and without CVT (controls). The groups were matched regarding Abbreviated Injury Scale 1990, update 1998 (AIS’98) head region severity score 3–6. Cases were identified by AIS’98 or ICD-10 code for CVT and CT or MR venography findings confirmed to be positive for CVT, whereas controls had no AIS’98 or ICD-10 code for CVT and CT venography or MR venography findings confirmed to be negative for CVT. All images were reviewed by a neuroradiologist. Rates of complications due to CVT were recorded, and mortality was assessed both unadjusted and in a multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, Rotterdam CT score, and Injury Severity Score. Complications and mortality were also assessed in prespecified subgroup analysis according to CVT location and degree of occlusion from CVT. Lastly, mortality was assessed in an exploratory subgroup analysis according to the presence of complications from CVT.
The CVT group (73 patients) and control group (120 patients) were well matched regarding baseline characteristics. In the CVT group, 18% developed venous infarction, 11% developed intracerebral hemorrhage, and 19% developed edema, all representing complications secondary to CVT. Unadjusted 30-day mortality was 16% in the CVT group and 4% in the no-CVT group (p = 0.004); however, the difference was no longer significant in the adjusted analysis (OR 2.24, 95% CI 0.63–8.03; p = 0.215). Subgroup analysis by CVT location showed an association between CVT location and rate of complications and an unadjusted 30-day mortality of 50% for midline or bilateral CVT and 8% for unilateral CVT compared with 4% for no CVT (p < 0.001). The adjusted analysis showed a significantly higher mortality in the midline/bilateral CVT group than in the no-CVT group (OR 8.41, 95% CI 1.56–45.25; p = 0.032).
There is a significant rate of complications from CVT in TBI patients, leading to secondary brain insults. The rate of complications is dependent on the anatomical location of the CVT, and midline and bilateral CVT is associated with an increased 30-day mortality in TBI patients.
Elin Tønne, Bernt J. Due-Tønnessen, Ulrikke Wiig, Barbro F. Stadheim, Torstein R. Meling, Eirik Helseth and Ketil R. Heimdal
The authors present population-based epidemiological data for craniosynostosis regarding incidence, age at diagnosis, sex differences, and frequency of syndromic and familial cases.
The prospective registry of the Norwegian National Unit for Craniofacial Surgery was used to retrieve data on all individuals with craniosynostosis treated between 2003 and 2017. The cohort was divided into three 5-year groups based on year of birth: 2003–2007, 2008–2012, and 2013–2017.
The authors identified 386 individuals with craniosynostosis. Of these, 328 (85%) consented to be registered with further information. The incidence increased significantly during the study period and was 5.5 per 10,000 live births (1/1800) in the last 5-year period. The increase was seen almost exclusively in the nonsyndromic group. Syndromic craniosynostosis accounted for 27% of the cases, and the incidence remained stable throughout the three 5-year periods. Both syndromic and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis were highly suture specific. There was a male preponderance (male/female ratio 2:1), and males accounted for 75% of the individuals with midline synostosis. Overall, 9.5% were index individuals in families with more than one affected member; of these, 73% were nonsyndromic cases.
The incidence of craniosynostosis increased during the study period, and the observed incidence is among the highest reported. The authors attribute this to increasing awareness among healthcare professionals. The number of syndromic cases was high, likely due to a broader definition compared to the majority of earlier reports. The study revealed a high number of familial cases in both syndromic and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, thus highlighting the importance of genetics as an underlying cause of craniosynostosis.