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Carter D. Wray, Sharon S. McDaniel, Russell P. Saneto, Edward J. Novotny Jr., and Jeffrey G. Ojemann

Object

Intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) is commonly used to guide the extent of resection, especially in lesion-associated intractable epilepsy. Interictal epileptiform discharges on postresective ECoG (post-ECoG) have been predictive of seizure recurrence in some studies, particularly in adults undergoing medial temporal lobectomy, frontal lesionectomy, or low-grade glioma resection. The predictive value of postresective discharges in pediatric epilepsy surgery has not been extensively studied.

Methods

The authors retrospectively examined the charts of all 52 pediatric patients who had undergone surgery with post-ECoG and had more than 1 year of follow-up between October 1, 2003, and October 1, 2009.

Results

Of the 52 pediatric patients, 37 patients showed residual discharges at the end of their resection and 73% of these patients were seizure free, whereas 15 patients had no residual discharges and 60% of them were seizure-free, which was not significantly different (p = 0.36, chi-square).

Conclusions

Electrocorticography-guided surgery was associated with excellent postsurgical outcome. Although this sample size was too small to detect a subtle difference, absence of epileptiform discharges on post-ECoG does not appear to predict seizure freedom in all pediatric patients referred for epilepsy surgery. Future studies with larger study samples would be necessary to confirm this finding and determine whether post-ECoG may be useful in some subsets of pediatric epilepsy surgery candidates.

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Sandra L. Poliachik, Andrew V. Poliakov, Laura A. Jansen, Sharon S. McDaniel, Carter D. Wray, John Kuratani, Russell P. Saneto, Jeffrey G. Ojemann, and Edward J. Novotny Jr

Object

Imaging-guided surgery (IGS) systems are widely used in neurosurgical practice. During epilepsy surgery, the authors routinely use IGS landmarks to localize intracranial electrodes and/or specific brain regions. The authors have developed a technique to coregister these landmarks with pre- and postoperative scans and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) standard space brain MRI to allow 1) localization and identification of tissue anatomy; and 2) identification of Brodmann areas (BAs) of the tissue resected during epilepsy surgery. Tracking tissue in this fashion allows for better correlation of patient outcome to clinical factors, functional neuroimaging findings, and pathological characteristics and molecular studies of resected tissue.

Methods

Tissue samples were collected in 21 patients. Coordinates from intraoperative tissue localization were downloaded from the IGS system and transformed into patient space, as defined by preoperative high-resolution T1-weighted MRI volume. Tissue landmarks in patient space were then transformed into MNI standard space for identification of the BAs of the tissue samples.

Results

Anatomical locations of resected tissue were identified from the intraoperative resection landmarks. The BAs were identified for 17 of the 21 patients. The remaining patients had abnormal brain anatomy that could not be meaningfully coregistered with the MNI standard brain without causing extensive distortion.

Conclusions

This coregistration and landmark tracking technique allows localization of tissue that is resected from patients with epilepsy and identification of the BAs for each resected region. The ability to perform tissue localization allows investigators to relate preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative functional and anatomical brain imaging to better understand patient outcomes, improve patient safety, and aid in research.

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Fabio Grassia, Andrew V. Poliakov, Sandra L. Poliachik, Kaitlyn Casimo, Seth D. Friedman, Hillary Shurtleff, Carlo Giussani, Edward J. Novotny Jr., Jeffrey G. Ojemann, and Jason S. Hauptman

OBJECTIVE

Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) is a form of fMRI that allows for analysis of blood oxygen level–dependent signal changes within a task-free, resting paradigm. This technique has been shown to have efficacy in evaluating network connectivity changes with epilepsy. Presurgical data from patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy were evaluated using the fcMRI technique to define connectivity changes within and between the diseased and healthy temporal lobes using a within-subjects design.

METHODS

Using presurgical fcMRI data from pediatric patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy, the authors performed seed-based analyses within the diseased and healthy temporal lobes. Connectivity within and between temporal lobe seeds was measured and compared.

RESULTS

In the cohort studied, local ipsilateral temporal lobe connectivity was significantly increased on the diseased side compared to the healthy temporal lobe. Connectivity of the diseased side to the healthy side, on the other hand, was significantly reduced when compared to connectivity of the healthy side to the diseased temporal lobe. A statistically significant regression was observed when comparing the changes in local ipsilateral temporal lobe connectivity to the changes in inter–temporal lobe connectivity. A statistically significant difference was also noted in ipsilateral connectivity changes between patients with and those without mesial temporal sclerosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Using fcMRI, significant changes in ipsilateral temporal lobe and inter–temporal lobe connectivity can be appreciated in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Furthermore, fcMRI may have a role in the presurgical evaluation of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

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Diem Kieu Tran, Andrew V. Poliakov, Seth D. Friedman, Hannah E. Goldstein, Hillary A. Shurtleff, Katherine Bowen, Kristina E. Patrick, Molly Warner, Edward J. Novotny Jr., Jeffrey G. Ojemann, and Jason S. Hauptman

OBJECTIVE

Assessing memory is often critical in surgical evaluation, although difficult to assess in young children and in patients with variable task abilities. While obtaining interpretable data from task-based functional MRI (fMRI) measures is common in compliant and awake patients, it is not known whether functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) data show equivalent results. If this were the case, it would have substantial clinical and research generalizability. To evaluate this possibility, the authors evaluated the concordance between fMRI and fcMRI data collected in a presurgical epilepsy cohort.

METHODS

Task-based fMRI data for autobiographical memory tasks and resting-state fcMRI data were collected in patients with epilepsy evaluated at Seattle Children’s Hospital between 2010 and 2017. To assess memory-related activation and laterality, signal change in task-based measures was computed as a percentage of the average blood oxygen level–dependent signal over the defined regions of interest. An fcMRI data analysis was performed using 1000 Functional Connectomes Project scripts based on Analysis of Functional NeuroImages and FSL (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Software Library) software packages. Lateralization indices (LIs) were estimated for activation and connectivity measures. The concordance between these two measures was evaluated using correlation and regression analysis.

RESULTS

In this epilepsy cohort studied, the authors observed concordance between fMRI activation and fcMRI connectivity, with an LI regression coefficient of 0.470 (R2 = 0.221, p = 0.00076).

CONCLUSIONS

Previously published studies have demonstrated fMRI and fcMRI overlap between measures of vision, attention, and language. In the authors’ clinical sample, task-based measures of memory and analogous resting-state mapping were similarly linked in pattern and strength. These results support the use of fcMRI methods as a proxy for task-based memory performance in presurgical patients, perhaps including those who are more limited in their behavioral compliance. Future investigations to extend these results will be helpful to explore how the magnitudes of effect are associated with neuropsychological performance and postsurgical behavioral changes.