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Letter to the Editor. Minute-by-minute monitoring of autoregulation

Renan Sánchez-Porras, Edgar Santos, Humberto Silos, and Oliver W. Sakowitz

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Letter to the Editor: Cortical spreading depression

Daniel San-Juan, Andres Jaramillo-Gonzalez, Roberto Diaz-Peregrino, Arturo Olivares Rivera, and Edgar Santos

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Short pressure reactivity index versus long pressure reactivity index in the management of traumatic brain injury

Erhard W. Lang, Magdalena Kasprowicz, Peter Smielewski, Edgar Santos, John Pickard, and Marek Czosnyka


The pressure reactivity index (PRx) correlates with outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is used to calculate optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt). The PRx is a correlation coefficient between slow, spontaneous changes (0.003–0.05 Hz) in intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP). A novel index—the so-called long PRx (L-PRx)—that considers ABP and ICP changes (0.0008–0.008 Hz) was proposed.


The authors compared PRx and L-PRx for 6-month outcome prediction and CPPopt calculation in 307 patients with TBI. The PRx- and L-PRx–based CPPopt were determined and the predictive power and discriminant abilities were compared.


The PRx and L-PRx correlation was good (R = 0.7, p < 0.00001; Spearman test). The PRx, age, CPP, and Glasgow Coma Scale score but not L-PRx were significant fatal outcome predictors (death and persistent vegetative state). There was a significant difference between the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves calculated for PRx and L-PRx (0.61 ± 0.04 vs 0.51 ± 0.04; z-statistic = −3.26, p = 0.011), which indicates a better ability by PRx than L-PRx to predict fatal outcome. The CPPopt was higher for L-PRx than for PRx, without a statistical difference (median CPPopt for L-PRx: 76.9 mm Hg, interquartile range [IQR] ± 10.1 mm Hg; median CPPopt for PRx: 74.7 mm Hg, IQR ± 8.2 mm Hg). Death was associated with CPP below CPPopt for PRx (χ2 = 30.6, p < 0.00001), and severe disability was associated with CPP above CPPopt for PRx (χ2 = 7.8, p = 0.005). These relationships were not statistically significant for CPPopt for L-PRx.


The PRx is superior to the L-PRx for TBI outcome prediction. Individual CPPopt for L-PRx and PRx are not statistically different. Deviations between CPP and CPPopt for PRx are relevant for outcome prediction; those between CPP and CPPopt for L-PRx are not. The PRx uses the entire B-wave spectrum for index calculation, whereas the L-PRX covers only one-third of it. This may explain the performance discrepancy.

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Use of the sole stenting technique for the management of aneurysms in the posterior circulation in a prospective series of 20 patients

Marco Antonio Zenteno, Jorge Arturo Santos-Franco, Jose Maria Freitas-Modenesi, Camilo Gómez, Luis Murillo-Bonilla, Yolanda Aburto-Murrieta, Ricardo Díaz-Romero, Edgar Nathal, Sergio Gómez-Llata, and Angel Lee


The use of intracranial stents in stent-assisted coil embolization is now a current neurosurgical practice worldwide. The clinical utility of these stents in the sole stenting (SS) technique, however, has not been thoroughly described, and the published reports of this experience are scarce. This study was designed to evaluate SS treatment of dissecting and nondissecting aneurysms of the posterior circulation.


This prospective and descriptive study was conducted in 20 consecutive patients who harbored single aneurysms of the posterior circulation and who were treated using the SS approach in the last 3 years. The clinical and radiological assessment and follow-up of the patients were evaluated using the modified Rankin scale as well as with computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography at discharge and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.


Eleven of the 20 patients had subarachnoid hemorrhages, 3 presented with ischemia, 1 presented with brainstem compression, and the remaining 5 patients had incidentally discovered, asymptomatic lesions. Only 1 patient had a complication (occipital infarction) attributable to the SS procedure. One patient died of rebleeding 2 weeks after the procedure. At 1 month, 40% of the patients had a subtotal or total occlusion, which increased to 55% at 3 months and 85% at 6 months, with a final subtotal or total occlusion rate of 80% at 1 year. The SS procedure in 1 case was considered a failure at 6 months because no change had been noted since the 1-month follow-up. One case showed partial occlusion and 1 case showed recanalization.


Use of SS for aneurysms in the posterior circulation complex is a safe and effective technique, demonstrating an occlusion rate of 80% at the 1-year follow up.