✓ Meningiomas often contain steroid hormone receptors, but the correlation of receptor presence with patient outcome or mitotic index is unclear. Intracranial meningiomas from 70 patients (27 males and 43 females, mean age 52.9 + 1.7 years [mean ± standard error of the mean], range 15–78 years) were evaluated immunocytochemically for female sex hormone receptors using specific monoclonal antibodies. Prognostic correlations were determined using statistical analyses that included clinical and histological variables. Twenty-eight tumors were benign, 27 had atypical features, and 15 were malignant. Thirty tumors were meningotheliomatous, 11 were fibroblastic, 28 were transitional, and one was secretory. Twenty-nine of the 70 primary tumors recurred (mean interval to recurrence 50.1 ± 10 months). The mean progression-free follow-up period for patients without recurrence was 82.1 ± 7.7 months. Nuclear staining for the progesterone receptor (PR) was found in 58 cases (83%) and PR status was scored as 0 (0% nuclei positive), 1 (< 1%), 2 (1–9%), 3 (10–49%), or 4 (> 50%). Only six tumors (8.6%) contained nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) staining, which was limited to a small number of nuclei (< 1%). Fisher's exact test (two-tailed) showed an inverse correlation between tumor grade and PR staining score (p ≤ 0.001), with 96% of benign and 40% of malignant meningiomas containing PR-positive nuclei. No correlation between age or histological subtype and PR score was detected. Meningiomas from female patients had more PRs (p ≤ 0.05). Analysis of variance revealed that the mitotic index (total counts of mitoses per 10 high-power fields) for tumors with 0 PR staining (18 ± 4.4) was higher (p ± 0.0001) than for those with PR scores of 1 to 4 (4.3 ± 1.9, 5.1 ± 2, 2.2 ± 0.8, and 1.7 ± 0.9, respectively). Univariate analysis indicated that the absence of PR, high mitotic index, and higher tumor grade were significant factors for shorter disease-free intervals. Multivariate analysis showed that a three-factor interaction model, with a PR score of 0, mitotic index greater than 6, and malignant tumor grade, was a highly significant predictor (p ≤ 0.0001) for worse outcome in patients harboring meningiomas. These data indicate that the presence of PRs, even in a small number of tumor cells, is a favorable prognostic factor for meningiomas.
Dora W. Hsu, Jimmy T. Efird and E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte
James E. McLennan, Arthur E. Rosenbaum, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte, Arthur S. Tischler and R. Michael Scott
✓ The authors report and discuss a rare angiographic demonstration of extravasation of contrast material from a ruptured arteriovenous malformation.
Joseph R. Madsen, Dora W. Hsu, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte and William D. Matthew
✓ The monoclonal antibody Hy2D4 was found to label a previously undescribed subset of rat and human anterior pituitary cells. The antibody binding site appears to be a carbohydrate moiety previously named “X hapten.” Double-label immunofluorescence studies in both normal rat and postmortem human pituitaries showed that this antigen is distributed on a subset of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-positive cells, but is not detectable in cells immunoreactive for growth hormone, prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, or luteinizing hormone. Since X hapten labeling revealed a biological subdivision of corticotroph cells, it was expected that some ACTH-positive tumors would be immunoreactive, but that tumors of other hormonal types would be negative. Instead, in 21 surgical specimens examined, tumors of all hormonal types were found to show immunoreactivity. To determine whether experimental proliferative changes in the pituitary could explain the shift in the cell type expressing the antigen, PRL-cell hyperplasia was induced in rats through chronic (8-week) exposure to diethylstilbestrol. The fraction of X-positive cells increased in these hyperplastic glands almost ninefold and, as in human adenomas, many non-corticotroph cells expressed the X marker in this model. However, the non-corticotroph cells expressing X were predominantly growth hormone cells, not the proliferative PRL cells. Thus, expression of the antigen does not necessarily imply that a cell is in a proliferative mode. While it is not known what role an altered expression of this antigen might play, the antibody offers a probe into cellular biology of human and experimental pituitary tumors.
Brian D. Beyerl, Robert G. Ojemann, Kenneth R. Davis, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte and Marc R. Mayberg
✓ A case of cervical diastematomyelia in an adult is reported. The patient first noted sensory and motor symptoms at 34 years of age after two episodes of cervical trauma. Metrizamide computerized tomography myelography of the cervical spine and cord showed the region of diastematomyelia and revealed a spur containing both bone and fat tissue projecting into the spinal canal and cord. The spur arose from the laminae and spinous processes of C-2 and C-3, and was successfully excised. Postoperatively, the patient's deficits gradually improved. The literature concerning adult cervical diastematomyelia is reviewed.
Lee B. Jacoby, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte, Karen Pulaski, Bernd R. Seizinger and Robert L. Martuza
✓ Benign pituitary adenomas are among the most common neurosurgical tumors and account for a diversity of clinical syndromes due to their hormone content and release. To determine whether these tumors arise from a single cell or multiple cells, the authors studied X chromosome inactivation in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolated from pituitary adenomas in women. Tumors of three different hormonal subtypes were examined. One tumor contained cells immunoreactive for prolactin and human growth hormone; one tumor contained foci immunoreactive for the β-subunits of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone; and the third tumor had no immunoreactive prolactin, human growth hormone, β-subunits of thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone, or the α-subunit. Analysis of the DNA revealed that, in each of the three pituitary tumors, one X chromosome was active in all cells and one X chromosome was inactive, indicating that each of these tumors was monoclonal in origin. It is concluded that clinically evident pituitary tumors arise from a genetic mutation in a single cell.
Tai Seung Kim, Andrea L. Halliday, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte and Karen Convery
✓ In order to examine the correlation between prognosis and the histological features of nuclear atypia, mitosis, endothelial proliferation, and necrosis in supratentorial adult astrocytomas, the authors reviewed 251 such cases treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1972 and 1980. One point was given for the presence of each feature. The total number of features was translated into a grade as follows: none of the four features = Grade 1 (one patient), one feature = Grade 2 (36 patients), two features = Grade 3 (33 patients), and three or four features = Grade 4 (181 patients). The period of survival was significantly associated with grade, the presence or absence of each of the four histological features, patient's age, type of operation, radiation therapy, and extent of tumor (log rank, p < 0.05). The variables associated with grade were age (p < 0.001) and radiation therapy (p < 0.02). After adjustment for these variables using a Cox proportional-hazards model, the difference in overall survival time between patients in Grades 2 and 3 was not statistically significant. When comparable groups of patients were examined in terms of age or receipt of radiation therapy, the median survival times differed markedly. Patients 50 years of age or less had a median survival time of 68 months (Grade 2 tumors), 29 months (Grade 3 tumors), and 13 months (Grade 4 tumors). Patients over 50 years of age had a median survival time of 6 months (Grade 2 and 4 tumors) and 9 months (Grade 3 tumors). Those patients who had received radiation therapy had a median survival time of 68 months (Grade 2 tumors), 21 months (Grade 3 tumors), and 11 months (Grade 4 tumors). Those patients who did not receive radiation therapy had a median survival time of 1 month (Grade 2 tumors) and 2 months (Grade 3 and 4 tumors); over half of these patients died within 2 months of surgery. This grading system, originally proposed by Daumas-Duport, et al., is simple, objective, and reproducible, and correlates well with survival times. The authors recommend that astrocytomas be graded on a scale of 1 to 4, with Grade 1 reserved for the rare adult supratentorial astrocytoma with none of the four histological features.
Dana Leifer, Teri Moore, Thomas Ukena, David Wilner, Ann Thor and E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte
✓ A patient with two intracerebral glioblastomas of differing histology with metastases to the liver in the absence of surgery is reported. The gliomatous nature of the lesions was confirmed by staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein. Histological and immunohistochemical evidence suggests that the metastases arose from the more poorly differentiated of the intracerebral tumors. One of the intracerebral tumors had enhanced expression of the ras p21 oncogene as compared to the other tumors and as compared to nonmalignant brain tissue from this patient.
Marius Maxwell, Sarah D. Shih, Theofanis Galanopoulos, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte and G. Rees Cosgrove
✓ Meningiomas are primarily benign brain tumors thought to arise through multistep tumorigenesis, involving both the activation of oncogenes and the loss of tumor suppressor genes. The recently isolated neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene has been found to be mutated in a large proportion of meningiomas. Almost all cases of familial meningioma occur in association with NF2. Familial meningioma in isolation from NF2 (sporadic) is exceedingly rare, with only 14 reports since 1959. The authors report the existence of a family lacking any stigmata of NF2, in which two members had spinal meningiomas. Tumor specimens were subjected to immunocytochemical analysis for the NF2 protein product Merlin, which has been implicated in the tumorigenesis of meningioma. Merlin immunoreactivity was present in both tumor specimens, implying that the NF2 tumor suppressor gene was not deleted in these tumors. This supports the hypothesis that a second tumor suppressor gene locus, other than NF2, acts in the formation of familial sporadic meningioma. The results are discussed in the context of putative oncogenic mechanisms of familial meningiomas.
Mustapha El-Azouzi, Dora W. Hsu, Peter McL. Black, Ferenc Jolesz, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte, Anne Klibanski and Nicholas T. Zervas
✓ The factors responsible for the production of prolactin-secreting tumors are obscure. One hypothesis, that chronic loss of dopamine control from the hypothalamus may be associated with prolactinoma formation, was tested. Female adult Fischer 344 rats were subjected to ovariectomy and were then given subcutaneous implants of diethylstilbestrol (DES) Silastic capsules to produce lactotrophic hyperplasia. Sequential studies assessed the neuronal activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (A12) during and after this estrogen-induced pituitary growth. Immunocytochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase was used as a marker for dopamine synthesis, plasma radioimmunoassay provided plasma prolactin levels, and magnetic resonance imaging and histological studies were performed to examine the structural changes occurring in the pituitary gland. Animals were sacrificed from 3 to 67 days after DES implantation. To determine the reversibility of the estrogen-induced changes, rats were also sacrificed at different time intervals after the removal of 30-, 40-, or 60-day DES implants.
After 30 days of DES treatment, plasma prolactin levels increased 40-fold and pituitary weight increased more than threefold. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity diminished gradually and was almost completely depleted at 30 days. Pituitary histology revealed marked prolactin cell hyperplasia. These changes were completely reversible; removal of the capsule after 30 days resulted in eventual normalization of plasma prolactin levels and pituitary size and in restoration of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the A12 region.
Sixty days of DES treatment produced large hemorrhagic tumors with sustained high plasma prolactin levels and an irreversibly distorted A12 area. These observations suggest that in these animals loss of dopamine regulation secondary to estrogen stimulation initially produces prolactin hyperplasia but that prolonged loss leads to adenoma formation.
Dora W. Hsu, Fernando Hakim, Beverly M. K. Biller, Suzanne de la Monte, Nicholas T. Zervas, Anne Klibanski and E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte
✓ The recurrence rate of pituitary adenomas has been reported to be as high as 10% to 35% despite their generally benign nature. A monoclonal antibody directed against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was used to investigate whether the proliferative index might help to predict adenoma recurrence. This antigen is a nuclear protein identified as the auxiliary protein of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase δ, and its gene expression correlates with cell proliferation. The authors studied 30 patients with recurrent pituitary adenomas, 32 with nonrecurrent adenomas, and seven normal pituitary tissue samples. The mean interval to recurrence (± standard error of the mean) was 5.3 ± 0.7 years. The age- and sex-matched nonrecurrent group had a mean follow-up period of 6.6 ± 0.3 years without clinical recurrence. Mean percentages of PCNA-positive tumor nuclei in both the initial and the second surgical specimens of the recurrent adenomas (13.45% ± 3.02% and 19.56% ± 3.66%, respectively) were significantly higher than that of the nonrecurrent group (2.49% ± 1.21%). In addition, recurrent tumors had a higher PCNA index than the initial tumors in the same patients. Normal anterior pituitary gland tissue had a significantly lower mean PCNA index (0.12% ± 0.11%) than either patient group. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that factors which collectively correlated significantly with recurrence were: high PCNA index, large tumor size, extrasellar extension, and incomplete surgical excision. The PCNA nuclear count was not associated with age, sex, or hormone hypersecretion, but was higher in macro- than in microadenomas, in tumors with extrasellar extension, and in those incompletely excised. A higher PCNA index also correlated with a shorter disease-free interval. The authors conclude that evaluation of the PCNA index assists in predicting the likelihood of pituitary adenoma recurrence.