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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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Edward S. Connolly, Robert J. Seymour and John E. Adams

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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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Robert M. Starke, Ricardo J. Komotar and E. Sander Connolly

Moyamoya disease is a chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disorder that results in severe morbidity and death. There is much controversy surrounding the optimal treatment for adult patients with the disorder. There have been no randomized trials to assess the efficacy of any single surgical treatment, and existing case series suffer from inadequate power, selection bias, and inherent differences in patient characteristics. In this article the authors review the literature concerning the optimal surgical treatment of adult patients with moyamoya disease.

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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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J Mocco, Brad E. Zacharia, Ricardo J. Komotar and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

✓In an effort to help clarify the current state of medical therapy for cerebral vasospasm, the authors reviewed the relevant literature on the established medical therapies used for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and they discuss burgeoning areas of investigation. Despite advances in the treatment of aneurysmal SAH, cerebral vasospasm remains a common complication and has been correlated with a 1.5- to threefold increase in death during the first 2 weeks after hemorrhage. A number of medical, pharmacological, and surgical therapies are currently in use or being investigated in an attempt to reverse cerebral vasospasm, but only a few have proven to be useful. Although much has been elucidated regarding its pathophysiology, the treatment of cerebral vasospasm remains a dilemma. Although a poor understanding of SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm pathophysiology has, to date, hampered the development of therapeutic interventions, current research efforts promise the eventual production of new medical therapies.

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Eric J. Heyer, Joanna L. Mergeche and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is frequently used to evaluate peripheral cerebral resistance and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the middle cerebral artery prior to and during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis may have reduced peripheral cerebral resistance to compensate for inadequate CBF. The authors aim to determine whether symptomatic patients with reduced peripheral cerebral resistance prior to CEA demonstrate increased CBF and cognitive improvement as early as 1 day after CEA.

Methods

Fifty-three patients with symptomatic CEA were included in this observational study. All patients underwent neuropsychometric evaluation 24 hours or less preoperatively and 1 day postoperatively. The MCA was evaluated using TCD for CBF mean velocity (MV) and pulsatility index (PI). Pulsatility index ≤ 0.80 was used as a cutoff for reduced peripheral cerebral resistance.

Results

Significantly more patients with baseline PI ≤ 0.80 exhibited cognitive improvement 1 day after CEA than those with PI > 0.80 (35.0% vs 6.1%, p = 0.007). Patients with cognitive improvement had a significantly greater increase in CBF MV than patients without cognitive improvement (13.4 ± 17.1 cm/sec vs 4.3 ± 9.9 cm/sec, p = 0.03). In multivariate regression model, a baseline PI ≤ 0.80 was significantly associated with increased odds of cognitive improvement (OR 7.32 [1.40–59.49], p = 0.02).

Conclusions

Symptomatic CEA patients with reduced peripheral cerebral resistance, measured as PI ≤ 0.80, are likely to have increased CBF and improved cognitive performance as early as 1 day after CEA for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Revascularization in this cohort may afford benefits beyond prevention of future stroke. Clinical trial registration no: NCT00597883 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

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Jason A. Ellis, Hannah Goldstein, E. Sander Connolly Jr. and Philip M. Meyers

Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are vascular shunts allowing blood to flow from the carotid artery into the cavernous sinus. The characteristic clinical features seen in patients with CCFs are the sequelae of hemodynamic dysfunction within the cavernous sinus. Once routinely treated with open surgical procedures, including carotid ligation or trapping and cavernous sinus exploration, endovascular therapy is now the treatment modality of choice in many cases. The authors provide a review of CCFs, detailing the current classification and clinical management of these lesions. Therapeutic options including conservative management, open surgery, endovascular intervention, and radiosurgical therapy are presented. The complications and treatment results as reported in the contemporary literature are also reviewed.

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E. Sander Connolly Jr. and Richard G. Ellenbogen