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Hongru Ma, Benlong Shi, Yang Li, Dun Liu, Zhen Liu, Xu Sun, Yong Qiu, and Zezhang Zhu

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to compare the radiological and clinical outcomes of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients with or without intraspinal anomalies (IAs) managed with growing rods (GRs), and to evaluate the safety of the GR technique in EOS patients with untreated IAs.

METHODS

EOS patients undergoing GR placement between August 2008 and July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with untreated IAs were classified into the EOS+IA group, and those without IAs into the EOS−IA group. The radiographic parameters including Cobb angle of the major curve, T1–S1 height, and apical vertebral translation were measured, and a detailed assessment of the neurological status was performed at each visit.

RESULTS

Seventy-six patients with EOS (32 boys, 44 girls) with an average age of 6.5 ± 2.3 years at initial surgery satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, including 28 patients in the EOS+IA group and 48 patients in the EOS−IA group. The radiographic measurements were comparable between groups preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the latest follow-up. One patient in the EOS+IA group experienced sensory deficit in a unilateral lower extremity after initial surgery, and an intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring event was observed in a patient in the EOS−IA group. No permanent neurological deficit was observed in either group.

CONCLUSIONS

EOS patients with and those without IAs had comparable clinical and radiological outcomes of the GR technique. Repeated lengthening procedures may be safe for EOS patients with untreated IAs.

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Yang Li, Benlong Shi, Dun Liu, Zhen Liu, Xu Sun, Yong Qiu, and Zezhang Zhu

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this paper was to compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes between the sequential correction (SC) technique and the traditional 2-rod correction (TC) technique in patients with severe thoracic idiopathic scoliosis (STIS) undergoing posterior-only correction surgery.

METHODS

Records of a consecutive series of STIS patients undergoing posterior-only correction surgery between October 2013 and October 2017 with more than 2 years of follow-up were reviewed. The radiographic parameters were assessed preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the last follow-up. Radiographic parameters, operative time, blood loss, and complications were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS

A total of 33 patients were included in the SC group, and 21 patients were included in the TC group. There was no significant difference in age, sex, or deformity magnitude (93.6° ± 7.8° vs 89.8° ± 6.6°, p = 0.070) preoperatively between groups. The operation time was shorter in the SC group than in the TC group (251.5 ± 42.8 minutes vs 275.4 ± 39.8 minutes, p = 0.020), while both blood loss (1284.6 ± 483.3 vs 1398.0 ± 558.4 ml, p = 0.432) and number of fused levels (13.1 ± 2.8 vs 13.6 ± 2.4, p = 0.503) were similar between the groups. Compared with the TC group, patients in the SC group had a higher correction rate (55.8% ± 9.2% vs 45.7% ± 8.8%, p < 0.001), less coronal (1.1° ± 0.81° vs 2.9° ± 0.93°, p < 0.001) and sagittal (1.5° ± 0.96° vs 2.1° ± 0.64°, p = 0.015) correction loss at the 2-year follow-up, and a lower incidence of intraoperative pedicle screw pullout (14.3% vs 23.8%, p = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS

The SC technique could significantly and practically reduce the difficulty of rod installation with better deformity correction outcomes than the traditional TC technique. The SC technique was an effective alternative for patients with STIS.

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Chun-Wei Yu, Kuan-Ting Chen, Yu-Lan Liu, Yi-Chiao Hsieh, Dun-Wei Huang, Yi-Feng Lee, Tsui-Jung Chien, and Dueng-Yuan Hueng

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Wendy Chen, Paul A. Gardner, Barton F. Branstetter, Shih-Dun Liu, Yue Fang Chang, Carl H. Snyderman, Jesse A. Goldstein, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, and Lindsay A. Schuster

OBJECTIVE

Cranial base development plays a large role in anterior and vertical maxillary growth through 7 years of age, and the effect of early endonasal cranial base surgery on midface growth is unknown. The authors present their experience with pediatric endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) and long-term midface growth.

METHODS

This is a retrospective review of cases where EES was performed from 2000 to 2016. Patients who underwent their first EES of the skull base before age 7 (prior to cranial suture fusion) and had a complete set of pre- and postoperative imaging studies (CT or MRI) with at least 1 year of follow-up were included. A radiologist performed measurements (sella-nasion [S-N] distance and angles between the sella, nasion, and the most concave points of the anterior maxilla [A point] or anterior mandibular synthesis [B point], the SNA, SNB, and ANB angles), which were compared to age- and sex-matched Bolton standards. A Z-score test was used; significance was set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS

The early surgery group had 11 patients, with an average follow-up of 5 years; the late surgery group had 33 patients. Most tumors were benign; 1 patient with a panclival arteriovenous malformation was a significant outlier for all measurements. Comparing the measurements obtained in the early surgery group to Bolton standard norms, the authors found no significant difference in postoperative SNA (p = 0.10), SNB (p = 0.14), or ANB (0.67) angles. The S-N distance was reduced both pre- and postoperatively (SD 1.5, p = 0.01 and p = 0.009). Sex had no significant effect. Compared to patients who had surgery after the age of 7 years, the early surgery group demonstrated no significant difference in pre- to postoperative changes with regard to S-N distance (p = 0.87), SNA angle (p = 0.89), or ANB angle (p = 0.14). Lesion type (craniopharyngioma, angiofibroma, and other types) had no significant effect in either age group.

CONCLUSIONS

Though our cohort of patients with skull base lesions demonstrated some abnormal measurements in the maxillary-mandibular relationship before their operation, their postoperative cephalometrics fell within the normal range and showed no significant difference from those of patients who underwent operations at an older age. Therefore, there appears to be no evidence of impact of endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery on craniofacial development within the growth period studied.