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Dudley H. Davis and Patrick J. Kelly

✓ Angiographically occult vascular malformations can be identified on computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision, when possible, is the treatment of choice in symptomatic lesions. Because these malformations are usually small and can be located in surgically treacherous areas of the brain, stereotactic resection should be considered. Stereotactic resection of a pathologically verified occult vascular malformation was performed in 26 patients in this series (13 females and 13 males, mean age 30 years). Seventeen patients presented with a seizure disorder, four with an intracerebral hemorrhage, and four with a progressive neurological deficit; one patient was asymptomatic. Sixteen patients had normal neurological examinations, nine had neurological signs referable to their lesion, and one had a visual field deficit related to a previous temporal lobectomy. In six patients evidence of acute hemorrhage was found on imaging studies or at surgery, and 11 patients had evidence of previous hemorrhage on imaging studies, determined at surgery or by histological examination. Three patients had evidence of both acute and previous hemorrhage and six patients had no evidence of hemorrhage. Lesions were located in cortical or subcortical areas in 21 patients, in the thalamus or basal ganglia in three, and in the posterior fossa in two. Following stereotactic resection, 24 patients were improved, one patient was unchanged, and one patient was worse. Without stereotaxis or intraoperative ultrasound studies, localization of these lesions at conventional craniotomy can be difficult. A stereotactic craniotomy is ideally suited to the treatment of these benign circumscribed, but potentially devastating lesions.

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Dudley H. Davis and Thoralf M. Sundt Jr.

✓ The relationship among cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume, cardiac output (CO), and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) at varying levels of arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) were studied in 70 normal cats. The CBF was measured from the clearance curve of xenon−133 and CO with a thermal dilution catheter placed in the pulmonary artery. The CBF, CO, and MABP values varied appropriately with changes in PaCO2, confirming the reliability of the preparations and the presence of normal autoregulatory responses. Moderate hypovolemia that did not change MABP did, nevertheless, significantly decrease CO and CBF. In an effort to determine if this decrease in CO and CBF were coupled responses, the effects of beta stimulation, hypervolemia, and alpha and beta blockade were investigated. Propranolol, in a dosage insufficient to change MABP, decreased both CO and CBF. This agent abolished the CO response to elevations in PaCO2 but not the CBF response, making it unlikely that this CBF reduction resulted from impaired cerebral autoregulation. Isoproterenol, which, in contrast to propranolol, does not cross the normal blood-brain barrier, alone or in combination with phenoxybenzamine, produced a 38% and 72% increase in CO, respectively, without a change in CBF. Alpha blockade (no major change in CO) and beta blockade (major decrease in CO) did not significantly effect cerebral autoregulation to changes in MABP from angiotensin. The ability of the brain to resist increases in MABP and CO and maintain normal CBF is explained by normal cerebral autoregulation. However, its vulnerability to modest decreases in blood volume, which cannot be attributed to variations in perfusion pressure, is unexplained but obviously has important therapeutic implications. This may be related to reduction in CO, changes in autonomic activity, or a decrease in the size of the perfused capillary bed.

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Chad D. Abernathey, Dudley H. Davis and Patrick J. Kelly

✓ The therapeutic strategies employed in the management of anterior third-ventricular mass lesions remain controversial. Resection by conventional craniotomy, whether via a transcallosal or transcortical approach, carries well-known risks and limitations. Alternatively, in this region traditional stereotaxy has been relegated to use with biopsy only or cyst aspiration procedures. Combining aspects of both conventional and stereotaxic techniques has allowed total removal of 12 colloid cysts in six women and six men ranging in age from 25 to 71 years. No mortality and minimal morbidity have been associated with the procedures. There has been no evidence of recurrence in an average follow-up period of 19 months.

By coupling the benefits of stereotaxic precision and localization to the microsurgical management of colloid cysts, several rewards have been realized: 1) only a limited cortical dissection is needed; 2) the hazards of callosal or forniceal injury can be avoided; 3) the lesion is easily localized regardless of ventricular size; 4) hemostasis can be readily achieved with bipolar cautery or defocused laser power; and 5) most importantly, a total resection is possible with little risk to the patient. Stereotaxic microsurgical laser craniotomy provides a new option for the management of colloid cysts and other anterior third-ventricular lesions.

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Pituitary adenomas in childhood and adolescence

Results of transsphenoidal surgery

Michael D. Partington, Dudley H. Davis, Edward R. Laws Jr. and Bernd W. Scheithauer

✓ Pituitary adenomas are uncommon in childhood. Between 1975 and 1988, 36 patients underwent trans-sphenoidal resection at the Mayo Clinic before their 17th birthday. Fifteen (41.7%) had prolactin (PRL)-secreting tumors, 16 (44.4%) had adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumors (including two patients with Nelson-Salassa syndrome), and three (8.3%) had tumors secreting growth hormone (GH); two patients (5.6%) had clinically nonfunctioning tumors. Of the 36 patients, 21 (58.3%) were girls, and girls predominated in every group except that with ACTH-secreting tumors, where they accounted for only 37.5% of the patients. The average age at the time of surgery was 14.7 ± 2.2 years, the youngest patient being 7.3 years old. The ACTH-secreting tumors were associated with an earlier onset of symptoms than the other tumor types: six (37.5%) of 16 patients became symptomatic before 10 years of age, compared with two (10.0%) of the 20 other patients. Presenting symptoms primarily reflected endocrine dysfunction, with neurological presentation (visual field deficits) occurring in only two patients.

There were no deaths in this patient group. Significant operative morbidity included steroid-induced psychosis in one patient and diabetes insipidus in three, which resolved in two. Plurihormonal tumors, broadly defined as tumors producing more than one hormone, were common, comprising five (36%) of 14 PRL-secreting tumors, all three GH-secreting tumors, and one of two clinically nonfunctioning tumors, or 25.7% overall. Macroadenomas accounted for 89% of plurihormonal tumors. Long-term follow-up review (median > 5 years) revealed good control of PRL-secreting tumors (although five of 15 patients had received postoperative radiotherapy), contrasted with a 25% late recurrence rate for ACTH-secreting tumors, which had an 80% initial remission rate. The majority of patients had good endocrine function, including reproductive function. It is concluded that: 1) although pediatric pituitary adenomas occur primarily in adolescence, Cushing's disease is found at any age; 2) transsphenoidal surgery is feasible and safe in this age group; 3) plurihormonal tumors occur more frequently in the pediatric age group than in adults; and 4) long-term control rates in PRL- and ACTH-secreting tumors are probably similar to those seen in adults.

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Ofer M. Zikel, Dudley H. Davis, Raymond G. Auger and Kenneth J. Cherry Jr.

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Edward G. Shaw, Bernd W. Scheithauer, Judith R. O'Fallon, Henry D. Tazelaar and Dudley H. Davis

✓ Eighty-one patients with pure supratentorial oligodendrogliomas underwent surgery alone (19 patients) or surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy (63 patients) between the years 1960 and 1982. The median survival time and the 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates for these 82 patients were 7.1 years, 54%, 34%, and 24%, respectively; these values were significantly different from those for an age- and sex-matched normal reference population. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed on 13 possible prognostic factors including: patient age and sex; presence of seizures; site, size, side, computerized tomography (CT) enhancement, grade, and calcification of the tumor; and treatment (extent of surgical resection, lobectomy, radiation dose, and radiation field). Of these factors, tumor grade as classified by the Kernohan and St. Anne-Mayo methods was most strongly associated with survival. Patients with Grade 1 or 2 tumors by either grading method had a median survival time and 5- and 10-year survival rates of approximately 9.8 years, 75%, and 46%, respectively, compared to 3.9 years, 41%, and 20% for those with Grade 3 or 4 tumors. The extent of surgical resection was also associated with survival. The 19 patients who underwent gross total resection of their tumor had a median survival time and 5- and 10-year survival rates of 12.6 years, 74%, and 59%, compared to 4.9 years, 46%, and 23%, respectively, for the 63 who had subtotal resection. When comparing the 19 patients who underwent surgery alone with the 63 who had surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy, there did not appear to be a survival benefit to be gained from the addition of postoperative radiation therapy. However, the patients who had surgery alone tended to have gross total resections and lower tumor grades. Analysis of the subset of 63 patients who underwent subtotal resection alone or with radiation therapy showed that the median survival time and 5- and 10-year survival rates were: 2 years, 25%, and 25% for the eight patients with subtotal resection alone; 4.5 years, 39%, and 20% for the 26 patients with surgery and low-dose (< 5000 cGy) radiation therapy; and 7.9 years, 62%, and 31% for the 29 patients receiving surgery and high-dose radiation therapy (≥ 5000 cGy), respectively.

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Thomas B. Crotty, Bernd W. Scheithauer, William F. Young Jr., Dudley H. Davis, Edward G. Shaw, Gary M. Miller and Peter C. Burger

✓ Two distinct clinicopathological variants of craniopharyngioma exist: the classic adamantinomatous type and a recently described papillary form that predominates in adults and reportedly behaves in a less aggressive manner. The present study describes the clinicopathological features of 48 patients with papillary craniopharyngioma treated at the Mayo Clinic between 1910 and 1994. An additional four tumors were found to have histological features of both adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngioma. Whereas adamantinomatous tumors typically occur in adolescent patients, the mean age of the 48 patients (23 males and 25 females) with papillary craniopharyngioma was 44.7 years (range 10 to 74 years). Presenting clinical features included visual impairment (84%), headache (68%), and pituitary insufficiency (anterior 42%; posterior 27%). Preoperative computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 17 patients typically revealed a noncalcified, partially cystic mass that enhanced peripherally and contained mural nodules (67%). Many (41%) of the lesions involved or extended into the third ventricle on imaging. At first surgery, gross total tumor removal was achieved in 17 patients (36%) and subtotal resection in 30 patients (64%) in whom tumor resection was attempted. Tumor recurrence was noted in two patients who underwent gross total removal. Tumor-free survival rates of 100% and 78% were obtained in patients who underwent gross total and subtotal resection at initial surgery, respectively. Postoperative radiation therapy was beneficial to patients having undergone a subtotal resection, with an increase in tumor-free survival from 26% to 86%.

Aside from well-documented morphological distinctions, papillary craniopharyngiomas differ from adamantinomatous tumors in several important respects. These include the almost exclusive occurrence of papillary tumors in adulthood and their more uniform appearance on both CT and MR imaging. However, a preliminary analysis of our data suggests there are no significant differences between the two lesions with respect to resectability, efficacy of radiation therapy, and overall survival.

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Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, J. Eric Ahlskog, Joseph Y. Matsumoto, Mary A. Swenson, Robyn L. McClelland and Dudley H. Davis

Object. Selective peripheral denervation is currently the primary surgical treatment for intractable cervical dystonia. The authors assessed preoperative factors to determine which, if any, correlated with outcomes in patients with torticollis who had undergone this procedure.

Methods. The records of 168 consecutive patients who had undergone selective peripheral denervation for cervical dystonia between 1988 and 1996 at the Mayo Clinic were reviewed. There were 89 women (53%) and 79 men (47%) with a mean age of 53.4 years. Selection of muscles for denervation was based on the patient's clinical presentation and electromyography mapping results. The most common torticollis vectors were rotational in 141 patients (84%) and laterocollis in 59 (35%). Seventy patients (42%) presented with combined vectors. The technique used to remedy both conditions involved denervation of the ipsilateral posterior cervical paraspinal and splenius capitis muscles. Denervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle was performed on the contralateral side for rotational torticollis and on the ipsilateral side for laterocollis. A rigorous physical therapy program followed surgery.

At the 3-month postoperative evaluation, 125 patients (77%) of the 162 who were available for follow up had moderate to excellent improvement in their head position, and pain was moderately to markedly improved in 131 patients (81%). The long-term follow up lasted a mean of 3.4 years and was undertaken in 130 patients. The original level of moderate to excellent improvement in head position and pain was retained in at least 71 patients (70%). Outcome was not predicted by preoperative head position, severity of abnormal posture of head, symptom duration, presence of tremor or phasic dystonic movements, or failure to respond to botulinum toxin treatment. Five patients recovered from postoperative complications including one myocardial infarction, one pulmonary embolism, and three respiratory failures. Three patients suffered from persistent C-2 distribution dysesthesias and three from slight shoulder weakness; one had a wound infection, and one died of respiratory arrest.

Conclusions. Selective peripheral denervation is an effective method of achieving lasting improvement of dystonia in most patients with intractable torticollis.

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Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Dudley H. Davis, Todd B. Nippoldt, William F. Young Jr., John Huston III and Joseph E. Parisi

✓ Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome has become a useful method to distinguish ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors (Cushing's disease) from other causes of the syndrome, principally ectopic adrenocorticotropin secretion by an occult tumor. Although the test is generally regarded as highly specific, the authors recently encountered two patients whose IPSS measurements were false-positive for Cushing's disease. The results of IPSS suggested a pituitary origin of ACTH secretion in both patients, but transsphenoidal surgery failed to disclose a pituitary adenoma or to improve postoperative plasma cortisol levels. Both patients subsequently were found to have an ACTH-secreting carcinoid tumor of the lung. The false-positive IPSS studies were due to periodic hormonogenesis. The patients must be hypercortisolemic at the time IPSS is performed for the study to be valid.