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James L. Leach, Lili Miles, David M. Henkel, Hansel M. Greiner, Marcia K. Kukreja, Katherine D. Holland, Douglas F. Rose, Bin Zhang and Francesco T. Mangano


The authors conducted a study to correlate histopathological features, MRI findings, and postsurgical outcomes in children with cortical dysplasia (CD) by performing a novel resection site–specific evaluation.


The study cohort comprised 43 children with intractable epilepsy and CD. The MR image review was blinded to pathology but with knowledge of the resection location. An MRI score (range 0–7) was calculated for each resection region based on the number of imaging features of CD and was classified as “lesional” or “nonlesional” according to all imaging features. Outcome was determined using the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) scale. The determination of pathological CD type was based on the ILAE 2011 consensus classification system, and the cortical gliosis pattern was assessed on GFAP staining.


There were 89 resection regions (50 ILAE Type I, 29 Type IIa, and 10 Type IIb). Eleven (25.6%) of 43 children had more than one type of CD. The authors observed MRI abnormalities in 63% of patients, characteristic enough to direct resection (lesional) in 42%. Most MRI features, MRI score ≥ 3, and lesional abnormalities were more common in patients with Type II CD. Increased cortical signal was more common in those with Type IIb (70%) rather than Type IIa (17.2%) CD (p = 0.004). A good outcome was demonstrated in 39% of children with Type I CD and 72% of those with Type II CD (61% in Type IIa and 100% in Type IIb) (p = 0.03). A lesional MRI abnormality and an MRI score greater than 3 correlated with good outcome in 78% and 90% of patients, respectively (p < 0.03). Diffuse cortical gliosis was more prevalent in Type II CD and in resection regions exhibiting MRI abnormalities. Complete surgical exclusion of the MRI abnormality was associated with a better postoperative outcome.


This study provides a detailed correlation of MRI findings, neuropathological features, and outcomes in children with intractable epilepsy by using a novel resection site–specific evaluation. Because 25% of the patients had multiple CD subtypes, a regional analysis approach was mandated. Those children with lesional MRI abnormalities, Type II CD, and surgical exclusion of the MRI abnormality had better outcomes. Type II CD is more detectable by MRI than other types, partly because of the greater extent of associated gliosis in Type II. Although MRI findings were correlated with the pathological CD type and outcome in this study, the majority of patients (58%) did not have MRI findings that could direct surgical therapy, underscoring the need for improved MRI techniques for detection and for the continued use of multimodal evaluation methods in patient selection.

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Jing Xiang, Yingying Wang, Yangmei Chen, Yang Liu, Rupesh Kotecha, Xiaolin Huo, Douglas F. Rose, Hisako Fujiwara, Nat Hemasilpin, Ki Lee, Francesco T. Mangano, Blaise Jones and Ton deGrauw


Recent reports suggest that high-frequency epileptic activity is highly localized to epileptogenic zones. The goal of the present study was to investigate the potential usefulness of noninvasive localization of high-frequency epileptic activity for epilepsy surgery.


Data obtained in 4 patients, who had seizures during routine magnetoencephalography (MEG) tests, were retrospectively studied. The MEG data were digitized at 4000 Hz, and 3D MR images were obtained. The magnetic sources were volumetrically localized with wavelet-based beamformer. The MEG results were subsequently compared with clinical data.


The 4 patients had 1–4 high-frequency neuromagnetic components (110–910 Hz) in ictal and interictal activities. The loci of high-frequency activities were concordant with intracranial recordings therein 3 patients, who underwent presurgical evaluation. The loci of high-frequency ictal activities were in line with semiology and neuroimaging in all 4 of the patients. High-frequency epileptic activity was highly localized to the epileptogenic zones.


High-frequency epileptic activity can be volumetrically localized with MEG. Source analysis of high-frequency neuromagnetic signals has the potential to determine epileptogenic zones noninvasively and preoperatively for epilepsy surgery.

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Ravindra Arya, Jeffrey R. Tenney, Paul S. Horn, Hansel M. Greiner, Katherine D. Holland, James L. Leach, Michael J. Gelfand, Leonid Rozhkov, Hisako Fujiwara, Douglas F. Rose, David N. Franz and Francesco T. Mangano


Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) with medically refractory epilepsy is characterized by multifocal brain abnormalities, traditionally indicating poor surgical candidacy. This single-center, retrospective study appraised seizurerelated, neuropsychological, and other outcomes of resective surgery in TSC patients with medically refractory epilepsy, and analyzed predictors for these outcomes.


Patients with multilesional TSC who underwent epilepsy surgery between 2007 and 2012 were identified from an electronic database. All patients underwent multimodality noninvasive and subsequent invasive evaluation. Seizure outcomes were classified using the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) scale. The primary outcome measure was complete seizure remission (ILAE Class 1). Secondary outcome measures included 50% responder rate, change in full-scale IQ, electroencephalography improvement, and reduction in antiepileptic drug (AED) burden.


A total of 37 patients with TSC underwent resective surgery during the study period. After a mean follow-up of 5.68 ± 3.67 years, 56.8% achieved complete seizure freedom (ILAE Class 1) and 86.5% had ILAE Class 4 outcomes or better. The full-scale IQ on follow-up was significantly higher in patients with ILAE Class 1 outcome (66.70 ± 12.36) compared with those with ILAE Class 2 or worse outcomes (56.00 ± 1.41, p = 0.025). In 62.5% of the patients with ILAE Class 2 or worse outcomes, the number of AEDs were found to be significantly reduced (p = 0.004).


This study substantiates the evidence for efficacy of resective epilepsy surgery in patients with bilateral multilesional TSC. More than half of the patients were completely seizure free. Additionally, a high proportion achieved clinically meaningful reduction in seizure burden and the number of AEDs.