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Dorothee Mielke, Kai Kallenberg, Marius Hartmann and Veit Rohde

The authors report the case of a 76-year-old man with a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. The patient suffered from sudden repeated reversible paraplegia after spinal digital subtraction angiography as well as CT angiography. Neurotoxicity of contrast media (CM) is the most probable cause for this repeated short-lasting paraplegia.

Intolerance to toxicity of CM to the vulnerable spinal cord is rare, and probably depends on the individual patient. This phenomenon is transient and can occur after both intraarterial and intravenous CM application.

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Vesna Malinova, Karoline Dolatowski, Peter Schramm, Onnen Moerer, Veit Rohde and Dorothee Mielke

OBJECT

This prospective study investigated the role of whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP) studies in the identification of patients at risk for delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) and of tissue at risk for delayed cerebral infarction (DCI).

METHODS

Forty-three patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were included in this study. A CTP study was routinely performed in the early phase (Day 3). The CTP study was repeated in cases of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD)–measured blood flow velocity (BFV) increase of > 50 cm/sec within 24 hours and/or on Day 7 in patients who were intubated/sedated.

RESULTS

Early CTP studies revealed perfusion deficits in 14 patients, of whom 10 patients (72%) developed DIND, and 6 of these 10 patients (60%) had DCI. Three of the 14 patients (21%) with early perfusion deficits developed DCI without having had DIND, and the remaining patient (7%) had neither DIND nor DCI. There was a statistically significant correlation between early perfusion deficits and occurrence of DIND and DCI (p < 0.0001). A repeated CTP was performed in 8 patients with a TCD–measured BFV increase > 50 cm/sec within 24 hours, revealing a perfusion deficit in 3 of them (38%). Two of the 3 patients (67%) developed DCI without preceding DIND and 1 patient (33%) had DIND without DCI. In 4 of the 7 patients (57%) who were sedated and/or comatose, additional CTP studies on Day 7 showed perfusion deficits. All 4 patients developed DCI.

CONCLUSIONS

Whole-brain CTP on Day 3 after aSAH allows early and reliable identification of patients at risk for DIND and tissue at risk for DCI. Additional CTP investigations, guided by TCD–measured BFV increase or persisting coma, do not contribute to information gain.

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Vesna Malinova, Bawarjan Schatlo, Martin Voit, Patricia Suntheim, Veit Rohde and Dorothee Mielke

OBJECTIVE

Clipping of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm requires some degree of vessel manipulation, which in turn is believed to contribute to vasoconstriction. One of the techniques used during surgery is temporary clipping of the parent vessel. Temporary clipping may either be mandatory in cases of premature rupture (rescue) or represent a precautionary or facilitating surgical step (elective). The aim of this study was to study the association between temporary clipping during aneurysm surgery and the incidence of vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in a large clinical series.

METHODS

Seven hundred seventy-eight patients who underwent surgical aneurysm treatment after aSAH were retrospectively included in the study. In addition to surgical parameters, the authors recorded transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography–documented vasospasm (TCD-vasospasm, blood flow acceleration > 120 cm/sec), delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs), and delayed cerebral infarction (DCI). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the association between temporary clipping, vasospasm, DIND, and DCI.

RESULTS

Temporary clipping was performed in 338 (43.4%) of 778 patients during aneurysm surgery. TCD sonographic flow acceleration developed in 370 (47.6%), DINDs in 123 (15.8%), and DCI in 97 (12.5%). Patients with temporary clipping showed no significant increase in the incidence of TCD-vasospasm compared with patients without temporary clipping (49% vs 48%, respectively; p = 0.60). DINDs developed in 12% of patients with temporary clipping and 18% of those without temporary clipping (p = 0.01). DCI occurred in 9% of patients with temporary clipping and 15% of those without temporary clipping (p = 0.02). The need for rescue temporary clipping was a predictor for DCI; 19.5% of patients in the rescue temporary clipping group but only 11.3% in the elective temporary clipping group had infarcts (p = 0.02). Elective temporary clipping was not associated with TCD-vasospasm (p = 0.31), DIND (p = 0.18), or DCI (p = 0.06).

CONCLUSIONS

Temporary clipping did not contribute to a higher rate of TCD-vasospasm, DIND, or DCI in comparison with rates in patients without temporary clipping. In contrast, there was an association between temporary clipping and a lower incidence of DINDs and DCI. There is no reason to be hesitant in using elective temporary clipping if deemed appropriate.

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Vesna Malinova, Bogdan Iliev, Ioannis Tsogkas, Veit Rohde, Marios-Nikos Psychogios and Dorothee Mielke

OBJECTIVE

The severity of early brain injury (EBI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) correlates with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and outcome. A disruption of the blood-brain barrier is part of EBI pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to assess tissue permeability (PMB) by CT perfusion (CTP) in the acute phase after aSAH and its impact on DCI and outcome.

METHODS

CTP was performed on day 3 after aSAH. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of all CTP parameters, including PMB, were performed. The areas with increased PMB were documented. The value of an early PMB increase as a predictor of DCI and outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) grade 3 to 24 months after aSAH was assessed. Possible associations of increased PMB with the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Early Brain Edema Score (SEBES) and with early perfusion deficits, as radiographic EBI markers, were evaluated.

RESULTS

A total of 69 patients were enrolled in the study. An increased PMB on early CTP was detected in 10.1% (7/69) of all patients. A favorable outcome (mRS grade ≤ 2) occurred in 40.6% (28/69) of all patients. DCI was detected in 25% (17/69) of all patients. An increased PMB was a predictor of DCI (logistic regression, p = 0.03) but not of outcome (logistic regression, p = 0.40). The detection of increased PMB predicted DCI with a sensitivity of 25%, a specificity of 94%, a positive predictive value of 57%, and a negative predictive value of 79% (chi-square test p = 0.03). Early perfusion deficits were seen in 68.1% (47/69) of the patients, a finding that correlated with DCI (p = 0.005) but not with the outcome. No correlation was found between the SEBES and increased PMB.

CONCLUSIONS

Changes in PMB can be detected by early CTP after aSAH, which correlates with DCI. Future studies are needed to evaluate the time course of PMB changes and their interaction with therapeutic measures.

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Julius Dengler, Nicolai Maldaner, Philippe Bijlenga, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Alexander Graewe, Susanne Guhl, Bujung Hong, Christian Hohaus, Adisa Kursumovic, Dorothee Mielke, Karl-Michael Schebesch, Maria Wostrack, Daniel Rufenacht, Peter Vajkoczy, Nils Ole Schmidt and Giant Intracranial Aneurysm Study Group

OBJECT

The underlying mechanisms causing intracranial perianeurysmal edema (PAE) are still poorly understood. Since PAE is most frequently observed in giant intracranial aneurysms (GIAs), the authors designed a study to examine the occurrence of PAE in relation to the location, size, and partial thrombosis (PT) of GIAs along with the clinical impact of PAE.

METHODS

Magnetic resonance imaging data for patients with a diagnosis of unruptured GIA from the international multicenter Giant Intracranial Aneurysm Registry were retrospectively analyzed with regard to location and size of the GIA, PAE volume, and the presence of PT. The occurrence of PAE was correlated to clinical findings.

RESULTS

Imaging data for 69 GIAs were eligible for inclusion in this study. Perianeurysmal edema was observed in 33.3% of all cases, with the highest frequency in GIAs of the middle cerebral artery (MCA; 68.8%) and the lowest frequency in GIAs of the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA; 0.0%). Independent predictors of PAE formation were GIA volume (OR 1.13, p = 0.02) and the occurrence of PT (OR 9.84, p = 0.04). Giant intracranial aneurysm location did not predict PAE occurrence. Giant aneurysms with PAE were larger than GIAs without PAE (p < 0.01), and GIA volume correlated with PAE volume (rs = 0.51, p = 0.01). Perianeurysmal edema had no influence on the modified Rankin Scale score (p = 0.30 or the occurrence of aphasia (p = 0.61) or hemiparesis (p = 0.82).

CONCLUSIONS

Perianeurysmal edema was associated with GIA size and the presence of PT. As no PAE was observed in cavernous ICA aneurysms, even though they exerted mass effect on the brain and also displayed PT, the dura mater may serve as a barrier protecting the brain from PAE formation.