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Jie Zhang, Dong-Xiao Zhuang, Cheng-Jun Yao, Ching-Po Lin, Tian-Liang Wang, Zhi-Yong Qin and Jin-Song Wu


The extent of resection is one of the most essential factors that influence the outcomes of glioma resection. However, conventional structural imaging has failed to accurately delineate glioma margins because of tumor cell infiltration. Three-dimensional proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can provide metabolic information and has been used in preoperative tumor differentiation, grading, and radiotherapy planning. Resection based on glioma metabolism information may provide for a more extensive resection and yield better outcomes for glioma patients. In this study, the authors attempt to integrate 3D 1H-MRS into neuronavigation and assess the feasibility and validity of metabolically based glioma resection.


Choline (Cho)–N-acetylaspartate (NAA) index (CNI) maps were calculated and integrated into neuronavigation. The CNI thresholds were quantitatively analyzed and compared with structural MRI studies. Glioma resections were performed under 3D 1H-MRS guidance. Volumetric analyses were performed for metabolic and structural images from a low-grade glioma (LGG) group and high-grade glioma (HGG) group. Magnetic resonance imaging and neurological assessments were performed immediately after surgery and 1 year after tumor resection.


Fifteen eligible patients with primary cerebral gliomas were included in this study. Three-dimensional 1H-MRS maps were successfully coregistered with structural images and integrated into navigational system. Volumetric analyses showed that the differences between the metabolic volumes with different CNI thresholds were statistically significant (p < 0.05). For the LGG group, the differences between the structural and the metabolic volumes with CNI thresholds of 0.5 and 1.5 were statistically significant (p = 0.0005 and 0.0129, respectively). For the HGG group, the differences between the structural and metabolic volumes with CNI thresholds of 0.5 and 1.0 were statistically significant (p = 0.0027 and 0.0497, respectively). All patients showed no tumor progression at the 1-year follow-up.


This study integrated 3D MRS maps and intraoperative navigation for glioma margin delineation. Optimum CNI thresholds were applied for both LGGs and HGGs to achieve resection. The results indicated that 3D 1H-MRS can be integrated with structural imaging to provide better outcomes for glioma resection.

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Zhengda Yu, N. U. Farrukh Hameed, Nan Zhang, Bin Wu, Jie Zhang, Junfeng Lu, Tianming Qiu, Dongxiao Zhuang, Hong Chen and Jinsong Wu

Resection of insular tumors in the dominant hemisphere poses a significant risk of postoperative motor and language deficits. The authors present a case in which intraoperative awake mapping and multi-modal imaging was used to help preserve function while resecting a dominant insular glioma. The patient, a 55-year-old man, came to the clinic after experiencing sudden onset of numbness in the right limbs for 4 months. Preoperative MRI revealed a nonenhancing lesion in the left insular lobe. Gross-total tumor resection was achieved through the transcortical approach, and the patient recovered without language or motor deficits. Informed patient consent was obtained.

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N. U. Farrukh Hameed, Tianming Qiu, Dongxiao Zhuang, Junfeng Lu, Zhengda Yu, Shuai Wu, Bin Wu, Fengping Zhu, Yanyan Song, Hong Chen and Jinsong Wu


Insular lobe gliomas continue to challenge neurosurgeons due to their complex anatomical position. Transcortical and transsylvian corridors remain the primary approaches for reaching the insula, but the adoption of one technique over the other remains controversial. The authors analyzed the transcortical approach of resecting insular gliomas in the context of patient tumor location based on the Berger-Sinai classification, achievable extents of resection (EORs), overall survival (OS), and postsurgical neurological outcome.


The authors studied 255 consecutive cases of insular gliomas that underwent transcortical tumor resection in their division. Tumor molecular pathology, location, EOR, postoperative neurological outcome for each insular zone, and the accompanying OS were incorporated into the analysis to determine the value of this surgical approach.


Lower-grade insular gliomas (LGGs) were more prevalent (63.14%). Regarding location, giant tumors (involving all insular zones) were most prevalent (58.82%) followed by zone I+IV (anterior) tumors (20.39%). In LGGs, tumor location was an independent predictor of survival (p = 0.003), with giant tumors demonstrating shortest patient survival (p = 0.003). Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation was more likely to be associated with giant tumors (p < 0.001) than focal tumors located in a regional zone. EOR correlated with survival in both LGG (p = 0.001) and higher-grade glioma (HGG) patients (p = 0.008). The highest EORs were achieved in anterior-zone LGGs (p = 0.024). In terms of developing postoperative neurological deficits, patients with giant tumors were more susceptible (p = 0.038). Postoperative transient neurological deficit was recorded in 12.79%, and permanent deficit in 15.70% of patients. Patients who developed either transient or permanent postsurgical neurological deficits exhibited poorer survival (p < 0.001).


The transcortical surgical approach can achieve maximal tumor resection in all insular zones. In addition, the incorporation of adjunct technologies such as multimodal brain imaging and mapping of cortical and subcortical eloquent brain regions into the transcortical approach favors postoperative neurological outcomes, and prolongs patient survival.