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Jae-Sang Oh, Dong-Sung Kim, Jai-Joon Shim, and Seok-Mann Yoon

Endovascular occlusion via the transvenous route is the favored treatment for indirect carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs). However, transarterial embolization can be used as an alternative method in patients with an inaccessible venous route. The authors present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a 2-month history of chemosis and proptosis in her right eye. Angiography demonstrated a Barrow Type D CCF. Transarterial Onyx embolization through the accessory meningeal artery was performed after an unsuccessful transvenous approach. Unexpected Onyx migrations to the cerebral arteries were detected while injecting the embolic material. Three hours after failed attempts to retrieve the Onyx cast endovascularly, it was microsurgically removed from the right middle cerebral artery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the surgical removal of Onyx from a normal cerebral artery.

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Dong-Won Shin, Moon-Jun Sohn, Han-Seong Kim, Dong-Joon Lee, Sang Ryong Jeon, Yoon Joon Hwang, and Eek-Hoon Jho

OBJECT

In this study the authors sought to evaluate clinical outcomes after using stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat benign and malignant spinal neurogenic tumors.

METHODS

The authors reviewed a total of 66 procedures of spinal SRS performed between 2001 and 2013 for 110 tumors in 58 patients with spinal neurogenic tumors, which included schwannomas, neurofibromas, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). The clinical and radiological findings were evaluated in patients with benign neurogenic tumors. For the 4 patients with MPNSTs, the authors reported overall survival and results of additional immunohistochemical staining to predict the survival difference among the patients.

RESULTS

Of the 92 benign neurogenic tumors, 65 tumors that were serially followed up using MRI after SRS showed significant change in mean tumor volume, from a mean of 12.0 ± 2.6 cm3 pre-SRS to 10.8 ± 2.5 cm3 post-SRS (p = 0.027), over an average of 44 months. The local control rate of benign neurogenic tumors was 95.4%. The 34 patients who presented with clinical symptoms of pain showed a significant symptomatic improvement. The initial mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was 6.0 and decreased dramatically to 1.0 after SRS during an average follow-up period of 10.9 months (median of 8.1 months). Although the proportions of transient swelling and loss of intramural enhancement were significantly different among the groups, there was no statistically significant correlation between those 2 factors and local tumor control (p = 0.253 and 0.067, respectively; Fisher’s exact text). Cross-table analysis also indicated that there was no statistically significant relationship between groups with loss of intramural enhancement and transient swelling. The median survival of neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1)-related and sporadic MPNSTs was 1.13 and 5.8 years, respectively. Immunohistochemical results showed that S100 was expressed in a sporadic MPNST or neurofibroma, whereas topoisomerase-IIa was expressed in NF1-related MPNSTs.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS is an effective treatment modality for benign neurogenic tumors, while MPNSTs showed heterogeneity in their responses to SRS.

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Jong Won Choi, Byung Moon Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Dong Ik Kim, Sang Hyun Suh, Na-Young Shin, and Jin Goo Lee

Object

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, radiographic findings, relationship between presenting symptoms for treatment and drainage pattern, and treatment outcomes of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula (HC-dAVF).

Methods

During a 16-year period, 238 patients underwent endovascular treatment for cranial dAVF at a single center. The incidence, radiographic findings, relationship between presenting symptoms for treatment and drainage pattern, and treatment outcomes of HC-dAVF were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

The incidence of HC-dAVF was 4.2% (n = 10). Initial symptoms were tinnitus with headache (n = 6), tinnitus only (n = 1), ocular symptoms (n = 1), otalgia (n = 1), and congestive myelopathy (n = 1). Presenting symptoms requiring treatment included ocular symptoms (n = 4), hypoglossal nerve palsy (n = 4), aggravation of myelopathy (n = 1), and aggravation of tinnitus with headache (n = 1). While the affected HC was widened in 4 of 10 patients, hypersignal intensity on source images was conspicuous in all 7 patients who underwent MR angiography (MRA). All ocular symptoms and congestive myelopathy were associated with predominant drainage to superior ophthalmic or perimedullary veins due to antegrade drainage restriction. All patients who underwent transvenous coil embolization (n = 8) or transarterial N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization (n = 1) improved without recurrence. One patient who underwent transarterial particle embolization had a recurrence 12 months posttreatment and was retreated with transvenous embolization.

Conclusions

The incidence of HC-dAVF was 4.2% of all cranial dAVF patients who underwent endovascular treatment. Source images of MRA helped to accurately diagnose HC-dAVF. More aggressive symptoms may develop as a result of a change in the predominant drainage route due to the development of venous stenosis or obstruction over time. Transvenous coil embolization appears to be the first treatment of choice.

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Byung Moon Kim, Pyoung Jeon, Dong Joon Kim, Dong Ik Kim, Sang Hyun Suh, and Keun Young Park

OBJECT

Internal carotid artery (ICA) rupture during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is an extremely difficult complication to treat. This study aimed to evaluate the immediate and long-term outcomes of covered stent placement for emergency reconstruction of ruptured ICAs during or after TSS.

METHODS

Seven patients underwent covered stent placement for emergency reconstruction of a ruptured ICA during or after TSS. The safety and effectiveness of covered stent placement for emergency reconstruction of ruptured ICAs were retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS

Pretreatment angiography showed active bleeding in 6 patients (5 intraoperative and 1 postoperative) and a pseudoaneurysm in 1 patient. Of the 6 patients with active bleeding, 5 were treated with a successive operation to control active bleeding. The other patient was treated just after cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to massive nasal bleeding 20 days after revision of TSS. All active bleeding was controlled immediately after covered stent insertion in these 6 patients. One patient showed a gap between the covered stent and ICA wall without active bleeding 30 minutes after glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor administration due to in-stent thrombosis. The gap was occluded with coil embolization after completion of the temporarily suspended TSS. The seventh patient, whose ICA tear was treated with surgical suture, underwent covered stent placement for a pseudoaneurysm detected on postoperative Day 2. During a mean follow-up period of 46 months (range 12–85 months), all patients had excellent outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score of 0). All the stented ICAs were patent on vascular imaging follow-up at a mean of 34 months (range 12–85 months).

CONCLUSIONS

Covered stents appear to be a safe and effective option for emergency reconstruction of ruptured ICAs during or after TSS.

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Byung Chul Son, Moon Chan Kim, Dong Eon Moon, and Joon Ki Kang

✓ The authors describe the effectiveness of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Type II, formerly known as causalgia, with hemibody allodynia. During MCS, a subjective sensation of warm paresthesia developed in the painful hand and forearm and spread toward the trunk. Pain and allodynia in the areas associated with this sensation were alleviated significantly. The analgesic effect of stimulation proved to be long lasting and was still present at the 12-month follow up.

The authors speculate that MCS might exert its effect through the modulation of thalamic activity in this particular case of CRPS with hemisensory deficit. A central mechanism associated with functional disturbance in noxious-event processing in the thalamus might have an important role in the pathogenesis of the condition.

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Yang Kwon, Sang Ryong Jeon, Jeong Hoon Kim, Jung Kyo Lee, Dong Sook Ra, Dong Joon Lee, and Byung Duk Kwun

Object. The authors sought to analyze causes for treatment failure following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), in cases in which the nidus could still be observed on angiography 3 years postsurgery.

Methods. Four hundred fifteen patients with AVMs were treated with GKS between April 1990 and March 2000. The mean margin dose was 23.6 Gy (range 10–25 Gy), and the mean nidus volume was 5.3 cm3 (range 0.4–41.7 cm3). The KULA treatment planning system and conventional subtraction angiography were used in treatment planning.

One hundred twenty-three of these 415 patients underwent follow-up angiography after GKS. After 3 years the nidus was totally obliterated in 98 patients (80%) and partial obliteration was noted in the remaining 25.

There were several reasons why complete obliteration was not achieved in all cases: inadequate nidus definition in four patients, changes in the size and location of the nidus in five patients due to recanalization after embolization or reexpansion after hematoma reabsorption, a large AVM volume in five patients, a suboptimal radiation dose to the thalamic and basal ganglia in eight patients, and radioresistance in three patients with an intranidal fistula.

Conclusions. The causes of failed GKS for treatment of AVMs seen on 3-year follow-up angiograms include inadequate nidus definition, large nidus volume, suboptimal radiation dose, recanalization/reexpansion, and radioresistance associated with an intranidal fistula.

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Keun Young Park, Dong Ik Kim, Byung Moon Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, and Dong Joon Kim

Object

Carotid artery stenting (CAS) can be an alternative option for carotid endarterectomy in the prevention of ischemic stroke caused by carotid artery stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of stent design on the incidence of procedural and postprocedural embolism associated with CAS treatment.

Methods

Ninety-six symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, consisting of 79 males and 17 females, with moderate to severe carotid artery stenosis and a mean age of 69.0 years were treated with CAS. The stent type (48 closed-cell and 48 open-cell stents) was randomly allocated before the procedure. Imaging, procedural, and clinical outcomes were assessed and compared. The symptomatic subgroup (76 patients) was also analyzed to determine the influence of stent design on outcome.

Results

New lesions on postprocedural diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were significantly more frequent in the open-cell than in the closed-cell stent group (24 vs 12, respectively; p = 0.020). The 30-day clinical outcome was not different between the 2 stent groups. In the symptomatic patient group, stent design (p = 0.017, OR 4.173) and recent smoking history (p = 0.036, OR 4.755) were strong risk factors for new lesions on postprocedural DWI.

Conclusions

Stent design may have an influence on the risk of new embolism, and selecting the appropriate stent may improve outcome.

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Jang-Hyun Baek, Byung Moon Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Hyun Seok Choi, Jun-Hwee Kim, and Jin Woo Kim

OBJECTIVE

Hyperattenuation on CT scanning performed immediately after endovascular treatment (EVT) is known to be associated with the final infarct. As flat-panel CT (FPCT) scanning is readily accessible within their angiography suite, the authors evaluated the ability of the extent of hyperattenuation on FPCT to predict clinical outcomes after EVT.

METHODS

Patients with successful recanalization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b or 3) were reviewed retrospectively. The extent of hyperattenuation was assessed by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score on FPCT (FPCT-ASPECTS). FPCT-ASPECTS findings were compared according to functional outcome and malignant infarction. The predictive power of the FPCT-ASPECTS with initial CT images before EVT (CT-ASPECTS) and follow-up diffusion-weighted images (MR-ASPECTS) was also compared.

RESULTS

A total of 235 patients were included. All patients were treated with mechanical thrombectomy, and 45.5% of the patients received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. The mean (± SD) time from stroke onset to recanalization was 383 ± 290 minutes. The FPCT-ASPECTS was significantly different between patients with a favorable outcome and those without (mean 9.3 ± 0.9 vs 6.7 ± 2.6) and between patients with malignant infarction and those without (3.4 ± 2.9 vs 8.8 ± 1.4). The FPCT-ASPECTS was an independent factor for a favorable outcome (adjusted OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.12–5.01) and malignant infarction (adjusted OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.31–0.57). The area under the curve (AUC) of the FPCT-ASPECTS for a favorable outcome (0.862, cutoff ≥ 8) was significantly greater than that of the CT-ASPECTS (0.637) (p < 0.001) and comparable to that of the MR-ASPECTS (0.853) (p = 0.983). For malignant infarction, the FPCT-ASPECTS was also more predictive than the CT-ASPECTS (AUC 0.906 vs 0.552; p = 0.001) with a cutoff of ≤ 5.

CONCLUSIONS

The FPCT-ASPECTS was highly predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with successful recanalization. FPCT could be a practical method to immediately predict clinical outcomes and thereby aid in acute management after EVT.

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Dong-Hun Kang, Byung Moon Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Yang-Ha Hwang, Yong-Won Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Sung Kwak, Hong Gee Roh, Young-Jun Lee, and Sang Heum Kim

OBJECTIVE

The role of the balloon guide catheter (BGC) has not been evaluated in contact aspiration thrombectomy (CAT) for acute stroke. Here, the authors aimed to test whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome in CAT.

METHODS

All patients who had undergone CAT as the first-line treatment for anterior circulation intracranial large vessel occlusion were retrospectively identified from prospectively maintained registries for six stroke centers. The patients were dichotomized into BGC utilization and nonutilization groups. Clinical findings, procedural details, and recanalization success rates were compared between the two groups. Whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and functional outcome was assessed.

RESULTS

A total of 429 patients (mean age 68.4 ± 11.4 years; M/F ratio 215:214) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A BGC was used in 45.2% of patients. The overall recanalization and good outcome rates were 80.2% and 52.0%, respectively. Compared to the non-BGC group, the BGC group had a significantly reduced number of CAT passes (2.6 ± 1.6 vs 3.4 ± 1.5), shorter puncture-to-recanalization time (56 ± 27 vs 64 ± 35 minutes), lower need for the additional use of thrombolytics (1.0% vs 8.1%), and less embolization to a distal or different site (0.5% vs 3.4%). The BGC group showed significantly higher final (89.2% vs 72.8%) and first-pass (24.2% vs 8.1%) recanalization success rates. After adjustment for potentially associated factors, BGC utilization remained independently associated with recanalization (OR 4.171, 95% CI 1.523–11.420) and good functional outcome (OR 2.103, 95% CI 1.225–3.612).

CONCLUSIONS

BGC utilization significantly increased the final and first-pass recanalization rates and remained independently associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome.

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Dong-Hun Kang, Woong Yoon, Seul Kee Kim, Byung Hyun Baek, Yun Young Lee, Yong-Won Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yang-Ha Hwang, Joon-Tae Kim, and Man Seok Park

OBJECTIVE

The optimal treatment strategy for patients with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) due to underlying severe intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare treatment outcomes from intracranial angioplasty with or without stenting and intraarterial infusion of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor in patients with ELVO due to severe ICAS, and to investigate predictors of outcome after endovascular therapy in such patients.

METHODS

A total of 140 consecutive patients with ELVO attributable to severe ICAS underwent endovascular therapy at two stroke centers (A and B). Intracranial angioplasty/stenting was primarily performed at center A and intraarterial infusion of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (tirofiban) at center B. Data from both centers were prospectively collected into a database and retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS

Overall, successful reperfusion was achieved in 95% (133/140) of patients and a good outcome in 60% (84/140). The mortality rate was 7.9%. Symptomatic hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of successful reperfusion, symptomatic hemorrhage, 3-month modified Rankin scale score 0–2, and mortality between the two centers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the only independent predictor of good outcome was a history of previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) (odds ratio 0.254, 95% confidence interval 0.094–0.689, p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS

Both intracranial angioplasty/stenting and intraarterial infusion of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor are effective and safe in the treatment of underlying severe ICAS in acute stroke patients with ELVO. In addition, a lack of a history of stroke/TIA was the only independent predictor of good outcome after endovascular therapy in such patients.