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Dong Hwa Heo and Choon Keun Park

OBJECTIVE

The aims of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) are to improve surgical outcomes, shorten hospital stays, and reduce complications. The objective of this study was to introduce ERAS with biportal endoscopic transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and to investigate the clinical results.

METHODS

Patients were divided into two groups based on the fusion procedures. Patients who received microscopic TLIF without ERAS were classified as the non-ERAS group, whereas those who received percutaneous biportal endoscopic TLIF with ERAS were classified as the ERAS group. The mean Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were compared between the two groups. In addition, demographic characteristics, diagnosis, mean operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), fusion rate, readmissions, and complications were investigated and compared.

RESULTS

Forty-six patients were grouped into the non-ERAS group (microscopic TLIF without ERAS) and 23 patients into the ERAS group (biportal endoscopic TLIF with ERAS). The VAS score for preoperative back pain on days 1 and 2 was significantly higher in the non-ERAS group than in the ERAS group (p < 0.05). The mean operative duration was significantly higher in the ERAS group than in the non-ERAS group, while the mean EBL was significantly lower in the ERAS group than in the non-ERAS group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in fusion rate between the two groups (p > 0.05). Readmission was required in 2 patients who were from the non-ERAS group. Postoperative complications occurred in 6 cases in the non-ERAS group and in 2 cases in the ERAS group.

CONCLUSIONS

Percutaneous biportal endoscopic TLIF with an ERAS pathway may have good aspects in reducing bleeding and postoperative pain. Endoscopic fusion surgery along with the ERAS concept may help to accelerate recovery after surgery.

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Dong Hwa Heo, Dong Chan Lee, and Choon Keun Park

OBJECTIVE

Recently, minimally invasive unilateral laminotomy with bilateral decompression (ULBD) has been performed for lumbar stenosis using endoscopic approaches. The object of this retrospective study was to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of three types of minimally invasive decompressive surgery: microsurgery, percutaneous uniportal endoscopic surgery, and percutaneous biportal endoscopic surgery.

METHODS

In the period from March 2016 to December 2017, minimally invasive ULBD was performed using microscopy, a uniportal endoscopic approach, or a biportal endoscopic approach to treat lumbar canal stenosis. Patients were classified into three groups based on the surgery they had undergone. The angle of medial facetectomy area and postoperative dural expansion were measured using MR images. The visual analog scale (VAS) score for leg and back pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), operation time, and complications were assessed. Clinical and radiological parameters were compared among the three groups.

RESULTS

There were 33 patients in the microscopy group, 37 in the biportal endoscopy group, and 27 in the uniportal endoscopy group. Preoperatively stenotic dural areas were significantly expanded in each of the three groups after surgery (p < 0.05). Mean dural expansion in the uniportal endoscopy group was significantly lower than that in the microscopy or biportal endoscopy group (p < 0.05). The mean angle of the facetectomy in the biportal endoscopic group was significantly lower than that in the microscopic group or uniportal endoscopic group (p < 0.05). On the 1st day after surgery, the VAS score for back pain was significantly higher in the microscopic group than in the uniportal or biportal endoscopic group (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the VAS score for back pain, VAS score for leg pain, or ODI at the final follow-up among the three groups (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Although radiological results were different among the three groups of patients, postoperative clinical outcomes were significantly improved after each type of surgery. The percutaneous biportal or uniportal endoscopic approach offers the advantage of reduced immediate postoperative pain. A percutaneous uniportal or biportal endoscopic lumbar approach may be effective for the treatment of lumbar central stenosis and an alternative to conventional microsurgical decompression.

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Dong Hwa Heo and Jin-Sung Kim

OBJECTIVE

Direct neural decompression cannot be achieved by performing lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF). To overcome the indirect decompressive effect of LLIF, additional endoscopic discectomy with oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) has been attempted. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients who underwent OLIF with additional endoscopic discectomy.

METHODS

Spinal endoscopic discectomy–assisted OLIF was attempted to remove herniated disc material. Only patients with a follow-up time that exceeded 12 months were enrolled. Clinical parameters examined were the Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale scores of back and leg pain. Postoperative MRI was also performed.

RESULTS

Fourteen patients were enrolled. Central and foraminal disc herniations were evident in 8 and 6 patients, respectively. Concomitant central or foraminal herniated discs were removed completely after additional endoscopic discectomy, and disc removal was confirmed by postoperative MRI. Mean preoperative visual analog scale scores and Oswestry Disability Index scores improved postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

OLIF with additional endoscopic discectomy results in successful direct neural decompression without posterior decompressive procedures. Endoscopic assistance might overcome the limitations of LLIF.

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Dong-Hwa Heo and Sung-Uk Kuh

✓ The authors report a case of vertebral body collapse after kyphoplasty in which calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was used. The patient, a 69-year-old woman in whom an L-1 compression fracture had been revealed on magnetic resonance imaging, had been treated at another regional hospital for the compressed vertebra. Kyphoplasty in which CPC was used had been performed at that time. Two months later, she suffered from severe upper back pain, which was the same as the previously existing pain, and she experienced progressive weakness of both lower extremities (motor strength Grade 4/5). A more severe compression of the L-1 vertebra was revealed, and thecal sac compression caused by retrobulging of the CPC on the collapsed L-1 vertebra was present 5 months posttreatment. The authors performed decompression and fusion surgery to treat the repeatedly collapsed L-1 vertebra. They suggest that the use of CPC in vertebrae with compression fractures should be reconsidered.

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Dong Hwa Heo, Dong Chan Lee, Jong Yang Oh, and Choon Keun Park

OBJECTIVE

Bony overgrowth and spontaneous fusion are complications of cervical arthroplasty. In contrast, bone loss or bone remodeling of vertebral bodies at the operation segment after cervical arthroplasty has also been observed. The purpose of this study is to investigate a potential complication—bone loss of the anterior portion of the vertebral bodies at the surgically treated segment after cervical total disc replacement (TDR)—and discuss the clinical significance.

METHODS

All enrolled patients underwent follow-up for more than 24 months after cervical arthroplasty using the Baguera C disc. Clinical evaluations included recording demographic data and measuring the visual analog scale and Neck Disability Index scores. Radiographic evaluations included measurements of the functional spinal unit's range of motion and changes such as bone loss and bone remodeling. The grading of the bone loss of the operative segment was classified as follows: Grade 1, disappearance of the anterior osteophyte or small minor bone loss; Grade 2, bone loss of the anterior portion of the vertebral bodies at the operation segment without exposure of the artificial disc; or Grade 3, significant bone loss with exposure of the anterior portion of the artificial disc.

RESULTS

Forty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Among them, bone loss developed in 29 patients (Grade 1 in 15 patients, Grade 2 in 6 patients, and Grade 3 in 8 patients). Grade 3 bone loss was significantly associated with postoperative neck pain (p < 0.05). Bone loss was related to the motion preservation effect of the operative segment after cervical arthroplasty in contrast to heterotopic ossification.

CONCLUSIONS

Bone loss may be a potential complication of cervical TDR and affect early postoperative neck pain. However, it did not affect mid- to long-term clinical outcomes or prosthetic failure at the last follow-up. Also, this phenomenon may result in the motion preservation effect in the operative segment after cervical TDR.

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Jin Hwa Eum, Dong Hwa Heo, Sang Kyu Son, and Choon Keun Park

OBJECTIVE

The use of conventional uniportal spinal endoscopic decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis can be limited by technical difficulties and a restricted field of vision. The purpose of this study is to describe the technique for percutaneous biportal endoscopic decompression (PBED) for lumbar spinal stenosis and analysis of clinical postoperative results.

METHODS

The authors performed a unilateral laminotomy with bilateral foraminal decompression using a unilateral biportal endoscopic system in patients with single-level lumbar stenosis. The authors enrolled only patients who underwent follow-up for longer than 12 months after PBED. Fifty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. This approach was based on 2 portals: one portal was used for continuous irrigation and endoscopic viewing and the other portal was used to manipulate the instruments used in the decompression procedures. Clinical parameters such as the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Macnab criteria, and postoperative complications were analyzed.

RESULTS

Neural decompression was effectively performed in all enrolled patients. The mean ODI was significantly lower after PBED. Of 58 patients, 47 (81.0%) had a good or excellent result according to the Macnab criteria. Postoperative ODI and visual analog scale scores were significantly improved compared with preoperative values.

CONCLUSIONS

From a surgical point of view, percutaneous biportal endoscopy is very similar to microscopic spinal surgery, permitting good visualization of the contralateral sublaminar and medial foraminal areas. The authors suggest that the PBED, which is a minimally invasive procedure, is an alternative treatment option for degenerative lumbar stenosis.

Free access

Dong Hwa Heo, Sang Kyu Son, Jin Hwa Eum, and Choon Keun Park

OBJECTIVE

Minimally invasive spine surgery can minimize damage to normal anatomical structures. Recently, fully endoscopic spine surgeries have been attempted for lumbar fusion surgery. In this study, the authors performed a percutaneous unilateral biportal endoscopic (UBE) technique as a minimally invasive surgery for lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to present the UBE technique of fully endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) and to analyze the clinical results.

METHODS

Patients who were to undergo single-level fusion surgery from L3–4 to L5–S1 were enrolled. Two channels (endoscopic portal and working portal) were used for endoscopic lumbar fusion surgery. All patients underwent follow-up for more than 12 months. Demographic characteristics, diagnosis, operative time, and estimated blood loss were evaluated. MRI was performed on postoperative Day 2. Clinical evaluations (visual analog scale [VAS] for the leg and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] scores) were performed preoperatively and during the follow-up period.

RESULTS

A total of 69 patients (24 men and 45 women) were enrolled in this study. The mean follow-up period was 13.5 months. Postoperative MRI revealed optimal direct neural decompression after fully endoscopic fusion surgery. VAS and ODI scores significantly improved after the surgery. There was no postoperative neurological deterioration.

CONCLUSIONS

Fully endoscopic LIF using the UBE technique may represent an alternative minimally invasive LIF surgery for the treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. Long-term follow-up and larger clinical studies are needed to validate the clinical and radiological results of this surgery.

Restricted access

Dae Won Kim, Won Sik Eum, Sang Ho Jang, Jinseu Park, Dong-Hwa Heo, Seung-Hoon Sheen, Hae-Ran Lee, Haeyong Kweon, Seok-Woo Kang, Kwang-Gill Lee, Se Youn Cho, Hyoung-Joon Jin, Yong-Jun Cho, and Soo Young Choi

Object

To improve the safety of dura repair in neurosurgical procedures, a new dural material derived from silk fibroin was evaluated in a rat model with a dura mater injury.

Methods

The authors prepared new, transparent, artificial dura mater material using silk fibroin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The cytotoxic and antiinflammatory effects of the artificial dura mater were examined in vitro and in vivo by histological examination, western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses.

Results

The novel artificial dura mater was not cytotoxic. However, it efficiently reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression as well as the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor–α. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage did not occur after repair of the brain of craniotomized rats with the artificial dura mater material.

Conclusions

The new artificial dura mater described in this study appears to be safe for application in neurosurgical procedures and can efficiently inhibit inflammation without side effects or CSF leakage. Although the long-term effects of this artificial dura mater material need to be validated in larger animals, the results from this study indicate that it is suitable for application in neurosurgery.