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Do Heum Yoon, Yoon Ha, Yong Gou Park and Jin Woo Chang

Object

Compensatory hyperhidrosis is a major and troublesome complication of thoracoscopic sympathectomy for primary hyperhidrosis. The incidence of compensatory hyperhidrosis has been reported to be as high as 50 to 97% in the patients who underwent sympathetic ganglia resection. In this study the authors evaluate the role of thoracoscopic T-3 sympathicotomy for primary hyperhidrosis and the prevention of compensatory hyperhidrosis.

Methods

Thoracoscopic T-3 sympathicotomy was performed in 27 patients with either isolated palmar hyperhidrosis (24 cases) or that in combination with axillary hyperhidrosis (three cases) during a 3-year period. In the cases of combined palmar/axillary hyperhidrosis, the T-4 sympathetic ganglion also was coagulated. The mean follow-up period was 19.7 months. Surgery-related results were determined on the basis of complications, compensatory hyperhidrosis, and patient-related satisfaction.

In the immediate postoperative period all 24 patients with palmar hyperhidrosis reported complete alleviation of their symptoms. One patient with palmar/axillary hyperhidrosis in whom axillary hyperhidrosis did not completely resolve underwent a repeated T-4 sympathicotomy 1 month after the initial surgery. Another patient suffered mild compensatory hyperhidrosis of the trunk 1 month postoperatively. The long-term satisfaction rate in all 27 patients was high. One patient required placement of a chest tube to treat pneumothorax. Other complications such as Horner syndrome, intercostal neuralgia, gustatory hyperhidrosis, and pulmonary edema were not observed.

Conclusions

Thoracoscopic limited T-3 sympathicotomy is an effective method to treat primary hyperhidrosis, its rate of compensatory hyperhidrosis is low, and its rate of long-term patient satisfaction is high.

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Do Heum Yoon, Kook Hee Yang, Keung Nyun Kim and Sung Han Oh

✓ Posterior dislocation of the atlas onto the axis without related fracture of the odontoid process is a very rare traumatic condition of which five cases have been previously reported.

The authors present a sixth case in which management was different from the others. The patient was successfully treated by open reduction of the dislocation and C1–2 transarticular screw fixation. The rarity of the lesion, the differences in diagnostic studies, and the successful treatment by safe intraoperative reduction and fixation are factors of interest in this case.

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Se Hoon Kim, Soya Paik, Do Heum Yoon and Tai Seung Kim

✓ The authors report a case of oncocytoma arising from the spinal cord in a 40-year-old woman who presented with the complaints of gradual difficulty in walking. The excised tumor was exclusively composed of polygonal cells with abundant homogeneous eosinophilic cytoplasms. Electron microscopy study showed densely packed swollen mitochondria and frequent desmosomes. The histological and ultrastructural findings were consistent with a diagnosis of oncocytoma. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first reported case of oncocytoma of the spinal cord.

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Dong Ah Shin, Keung Nyun Kim, Hyun Cheol Shin and Do Heum Yoon

Object

The objective of this study was to evaluate the invasiveness of microendoscopic discectomy (MED) in comparison with microscopic discectomy (MD) by measuring serum levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK)-MM and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-5, and by comparing visual analog scale (VAS) scores of postoperative pain.

Methods

This study included a group of 15 patients who underwent surgery using MED and 15 patients who underwent surgery using MD, both for single-level unilateral herniated nucleus pulposus. The CPK-MM and LDH-5 levels were measured at admission and after 1, 3, and 5 days postoperatively. Pain assessment was recorded using scores raging from 0 to 10 on a subjective VAS at admission and at 1, 3, and 5 days postoperatively.

Results

The mean CPK-MM levels were lower for the MED group than for the MD group at both 3 (576.1 ± 286.3 IU/L compared with 968.1 ± 377.8 IU/L) and 5 days (348.1 ± 231.0 IU/L compared with 721.7 ± 463.2) postoperatively (p < 0.05). The mean VAS scores for postoperative back pain were lower in the MED group than in the MD group, both at 1 (3.3 ± 2.3 compared with 5.8 ± 1.5) and 5 days (1.9 ± 1.1 compared with 3.6 ± 1.1) postoperatively (p < 0.01).

Conclusions

The MED procedure is less invasive than MD, and causes less muscle damage and less back pain.

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Chang Kyu Lee, Dong Ah Shin, Seong Yi, Keung Nyun Kim, Hyun Chul Shin, Do Heum Yoon and Yoon Ha

OBJECT

The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical outcomes after cervical laminoplasty in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).

METHODS

Fifty consecutive patients who underwent a cervical laminoplasty for OPLL between January 2012 and January 2013 and who were followed up for at least 1 year were analyzed in this study. Standing plain radiographs of the cervical spine, CT (midsagittal view), and MRI (T2-weighted sagittal view) were obtained (anteroposterior, lateral, flexion, and extension) pre- and postoperatively. Cervical spine alignment was assessed with the following 3 parameters: the C2–7 Cobb angle, C2–7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and T-1 slope minus C2–7 Cobb angle. The change in cervical sagittal alignment was defined as the difference between the post- and preoperative C2–7 Cobb angles, C2–7 SVAs, and T-1 slope minus C2–7 Cobb angles. Outcome assessments (visual analog scale [VAS], Oswestry Neck Disability Index [NDI], 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36], and Japanese Orthopaedic Association [JOA] scores) were obtained in all patients pre- and postoperatively.

RESULTS

The average patient age was 56.3 years (range 38–72 years). There were 34 male patients and 16 female patients. Cervical laminoplasty for OPLL helped alleviate radiculomyelopathy. Compared with the preoperative scores, improvement was seen in postoperative VAS and JOA scores. After laminoplasty, 35 patients had kyphotic changes, and 15 had lordotic changes. However, cervical sagittal alignment after laminoplasty was not significantly associated with clinical outcomes in terms of postoperative improvement of the JOA score (C2–7 Cobb angle: p = 0.633; C2–7 SVA: p = 0.817; T-1 slope minus C2–7 lordosis: p = 0.554), the SF-36 score (C2–7 Cobb angle: p = 0.554; C2–7 SVA: p = 0.793; T-1 slope minus C2–7 lordosis: p = 0.829), the VAS neck score (C2–7 Cobb angle: p = 0.263; C2–7 SVA: p = 0.716; T-1 slope minus C2–7 lordosis: p = 0.497), or the NDI score (C2–7 Cobb angle: p = 0.568; C2–7 SVA: p = 0.279; T-1 slope minus C2–7 lordosis: p = 0.966). Similarly, the change in cervical sagittal alignment was not related to the JOA (p = 0.604), SF-36 (p = 0.308), VAS neck (p = 0.832), or NDI (p = 0.608) scores.

CONCLUSIONS

Cervical laminoplasty for OPLL improved radiculomyelopathy. Cervical laminoplasty increased the probability of cervical kyphotic alignment. However, cervical sagittal alignment and clinical outcomes were not clearly related.

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Seong Yi, Do Heum Yoon, Hyun Chul Shin, Keung Nyun Kim and Sang Won Lee

✓ Spondylocostal dysostosis is a rare congenital segmental costovertebral malformation. Neural tube defects associated with it have been reported several times, and a genetic cause has been proposed. The authors report on the first patient with both spondylocostal dysostosis and an intrathoracic myelomeningocele in whom surgical treatment was successful.

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Yoon Ha, Young Soo Kim, Jin Mo Cho, Seung Hwan Yoon, So Ra Park, Do Heum Yoon, Eun Young Kim and Hyung Chun Park

Object. Granulocyte—macrophage colony—stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a potent hemopoietic cytokine that stimulates stem cell proliferation in the bone marrow and inhibits apoptotic cell death in leukocytes. Its effects in the central nervous system, however, are still unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine if GM-CSF can rescue neuronal cells from apoptosis and improve neurological function in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model.

Methods. To study the effect of GM-CSF on apoptotic neuronal death, the authors used a staurosporine-induced neuronal death model in an N2A cell line (in vitro) and in a rat SCI model (in vivo). The N2A cells were preincubated with GM-CSF for 60 minutes before being exposed to staurosporine for 24 hours. To inhibit GM-CSF, N2A cells were pretreated with antibodies against the GM-CSF receptor for 60 minutes. Clip compression was used to induce SCI. Animals were treated with daily doses of GM-CSF (20 µg/day) for 5 days. The number of apoptotic cells in the spinal cord and neurological improvements were assessed.

Pretreatment with GM-CSF was found to protect N2A cells significantly from apoptosis, and neutralizing antibodies for the GM-CSF receptors inhibited the rescuing effect of GM-CSF on apoptosis. In the rat SCI model, neurological function improved significantly in the GM-CSF—treated group compared with controls treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase—mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining showed that GM-CSF administration reduced apoptosis in the injured spinal cord.

Conclusions. Treatment of SCI with GM-CSF showed beneficial effects. Neuronal protection against apoptosis is viewed as a likely mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of GM-CSF in SCI.

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Sungkyu Lee, Chung Mo Nam, Do Heum Yoon, Keung Nyun Kim, Seong Yi, Dong Ah Shin and Yoon Ha

Object

The authors undertook this study to investigate the relationships between low-back pain (LBP) and spinal bone density. Low-back pain is a major health issue and contributes to increases in medical and economic costs. Epidemiological studies have identified individual, sociodemographic, psychosocial, and occupational risk factors for LBP. However, there have been limited studies addressing the relationships between LBP and spinal bone density.

Methods

Data were obtained from the population-based Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (K-NHANES IV, 2009). From 10,533 K-NHANES participants, the authors identified 7144 (3099 men and 4045 women) 21 years of age or older who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric measurements for inclusion in this study. Low-back pain patients were defined as those who had been diagnosed with LBP by a medical doctor. Chi-square tests, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between LBP and spinal bone density.

Results

The total prevalence of LBP in the patient sample was 17.1%. More females (21.0%) reported LBP than males (12.1%). A number of sociodemographic and medical factors—sex, age, place of residence, occupation, education, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and depression—were all associated with LBP, while LBP was not associated with income or exercise levels. Regression analyses indicated that higher lumbar spine T-scores (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.20) were associated with LBP.

Conclusions

Higher bone density in the lumbar spine is associated with LBP, independent of confounding factors such as sociodemographic status, education, and medical-psychiatric disorders. Cause and effect relationship between higher bone density and LBP, such as degenerative changes in spine, requires further investigation.

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Min Ho Kong, Henry J. Hymanson, Kwan Young Song, Dong Kyu Chin, Yong Eun Cho, Do Heum Yoon and Jeffrey C. Wang

Object

The authors conducted a retrospective observational study using kinetic MR imaging to investigate the relationship between instability, abnormal sagittal segmental motion, and radiographic variables consisting of intervertebral disc degeneration, facet joint osteoarthritis (FJO), degeneration of the interspinous ligaments, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy (LFH), and the status of the paraspinal muscles.

Methods

Abnormal segmental motion, defined as > 10° angulation and > 3 mm of translation in the sagittal plane, was investigated in 1575 functional spine units (315 patients) in flexion, neutral, and extension postures using kinetic MR imaging. Each segment was assessed based on the extent of disc degeneration (Grades I–V), FJO (Grades 1–4), interspinous ligament degeneration (Grades 1–4), presence of LFH, and paraspinal muscle fatty infiltration observed on kinetic MR imaging. These factors are often noted in patients with degenerative disease, and there are grading systems to describe these changes. For the first time, the authors attempted to address the relationship between these radiographic observations and the effects on the motion and instability of the functional spine unit.

Results

The prevalence of abnormal translational motion was significantly higher in patients with Grade IV degenerative discs and Grade 3 arthritic facet joints (p < 0.05). In patients with advanced disc degeneration and FJO, there was a lesser amount of motion in both segmental translation and angulation when compared with lower grades of degeneration, and this difference was statistically significant for angular motion (p < 0.05). Patients with advanced degenerative Grade 4 facet joint arthritis had a significantly lower percentage of abnormal angular motion compared to patients with normal facet joints (p < 0.001). The presence of LFH was strongly associated with abnormal translational and angular motion. Grade 4 interspinous ligament degeneration and the presence of paraspinal muscle fatty infiltration were both significantly associated with excessive abnormal angular motion (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

This kinetic MR imaging analysis showed that the lumbar functional unit with more disc degeneration, FJO, and LFH had abnormal sagittal plane translation and angulation. These findings suggest that abnormal segmental motion noted on kinetic MR images is closely associated with disc degeneration, FJO, and the pathological characteristics of interspinous ligaments, ligamentum flavum, and paraspinal muscles. Kinetic MR imaging in patients with mechanical back pain may prove a valuable source of information about the stability of the functional spine unit by measuring abnormal segmental motion and grading of radiographic parameters simultaneously.