Guy Rosenthal, J. Claude Hemphill III, Marco Sorani, Christine Martin, Diane Morabito, Michele Meeker, Vincent Wang and Geoffrey T. Manley
Previous studies have demonstrated that periods of low brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) are associated with poor outcome after head trauma but have primarily focused on cerebral and hemodynamic factors as causes of low PbtO2. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lung function on PbtO2 with an oxygen challenge (increase in fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] concentration to 1.0).
This prospective observational cohort study was performed in the neurointensive care unit of the Level 1 trauma center at San Francisco General Hospital. Thirty-seven patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) undergoing brain tissue oxygen monitoring as part of regular care underwent an oxygen challenge, consisting of an increase in FiO2 concentration from baseline to 1.0 for 20 minutes. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), PbtO2, and the ratio of PaO2 to FiO2 (the PF ratio) were determined before and after oxygen challenge.
Patients with higher PF ratios achieved greater PbtO2 during oxygen challenge than those with a low PF ratio because they achieved a higher PaO2 after an oxygen challenge. Lung function, specifically the PF ratio, is a major determinant of the maximal PbtO2 attained during an oxygen challenge.
Given that patients with TBI are at risk for pulmonary complications such as pneumonia, severe atelectasis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome, lung function must be considered when interpreting brain tissue oxygenation.
Guy Rosenthal, Diane Morabito, Mitchell Cohen, Annina Roeytenberg, Nikita Derugin, S. Scott Panter, M. Margaret Knudson and Geoffrey Manley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often occurs as part of a multisystem trauma that may lead to hemorrhagic shock. Effective resuscitation and restoration of oxygen delivery to the brain is important in patients with TBI because hypotension and hypoxia are associated with poor outcome in head injury. We studied the effects of hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying (HBOC)–201 solution compared with lactated Ringer (LR) solution in a large animal model of brain injury and hemorrhage, in a blinded prospective randomized study.
Swine underwent brain impact injury and hemorrhage to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mm Hg. Twenty swine were randomized to undergo resuscitation with HBOC-201 (6 ml/kg) or LR solution (12 ml/kg) and were observed for an average of 6.5 ± 0.5 hours following resuscitation. At the end of the observation period, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed. Histological studies of swine brains were performed using Fluoro-Jade B, a marker of early neuronal degeneration.
Swine resuscitated with HBOC-201 had higher MAP, higher cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), improved base deficit, and higher brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) than animals resuscitated with LR solution. No significant difference in total injury volume on T2-weighted MR imaging was observed between animals resuscitated with HBOC-201 solution (1155 ± 374 mm3) or LR solution (1246 ± 279 mm3; p = 0.55). On the side of impact injury, no significant difference in the mean number of Fluoro-Jade B–positive cells/hpf was seen between HBOC-201 solution (61.5 ± 14.7) and LR solution (48.9 ± 17.7; p = 0.13). Surprisingly, on the side opposite impact injury, a significant increase in Fluoro-Jade B–positive cells/hpf was seen in animals resuscitated with LR solution (42.8 ± 28.3) compared with those resuscitated with HBOC-201 solution (5.6 ± 8.1; p < 0.05), implying greater neuronal injury in LR-treated swine.
The improved MAP, CPP, and PbtO2 observed with HBOC-201 solution in comparison with LR solution indicates that HBOC-201 solution may be a preferable agent for small-volume resuscitation in brain-injured patients with hemorrhage. The use of HBOC-201 solution appears to decrease cellular degeneration in the brain area not directly impacted by the primary injury. Hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying–201 solution may act by improving cerebral blood flow or increasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, mitigating a second insult to the injured brain.
Gregory W. J. Hawryluk, Nicolas Phan, Adam R. Ferguson, Diane Morabito, Nikita Derugin, Campbell L. Stewart, M. Margaret Knudson, Geoffrey Manley and Guy Rosenthal
The optimal site for placement of tissue oxygen probes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unresolved. The authors used a previously described swine model of focal TBI and studied brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) at the sites of contusion, proximal and distal to contusion, and in the contralateral hemisphere to determine the effect of probe location on PbtO2 and to assess the effects of physiological interventions on PbtO2 at these different sites.
A controlled cortical impact device was used to generate a focal lesion in the right frontal lobe in 12 anesthetized swine. PbtO2 was measured using Licox brain tissue oxygen probes placed at the site of contusion, in pericontusional tissue (proximal probe), in the right parietal region (distal probe), and in the contralateral hemisphere. PbtO2 was measured during normoxia, hyperoxia, hypoventilation, and hyperventilation.
Physiological interventions led to expected changes, including a large increase in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood with hyperoxia, increased intracranial pressure (ICP) with hypoventilation, and decreased ICP with hyperventilation. Importantly, PbtO2 decreased substantially with proximity to the focal injury (contusion and proximal probes), and this difference was maintained at different levels of fraction of inspired oxygen and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood. In the distal and contralateral probes, hypoventilation and hyperventilation were associated with expected increased and decreased PbtO2 values, respectively. However, in the contusion and proximal probes, these effects were diminished, consistent with loss of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity at and near the injury site. Similarly, hyperoxia led to the expected rise in PbtO2 only in the distal and contralateral probes, with little or no effect in the proximal and contusion probes, respectively.
PbtO2 measurements are strongly influenced by the distance from the site of focal injury. Physiological alterations, including hyperoxia, hyperventilation, and hypoventilation substantially affect PbtO2 values distal to the site of injury but have little effect in and around the site of contusion. Clinical interpretations of brain tissue oxygen measurements should take into account the spatial relation of probe position to the site of injury. The decision of where to place a brain tissue oxygen probe in TBI patients should also take these factors into consideration.