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Jason Gurewitz, Zane Schnurman, Aya Nakamura, Ralph E. Navarro, Dev N. Patel, Sean O. McMenomey, J. Thomas Roland Jr., John G. Golfinos, and Douglas Kondziolka

OBJECTIVE

In this study, the authors aimed to clarify the relationship between hearing loss and tumor volumetric growth rates in patients with untreated vestibular schwannoma (VS).

METHODS

Records of 128 treatment-naive patients diagnosed with unilateral VS between 2012 and 2018 with serial audiometric assessment and MRI were reviewed. Tumor growth rates were determined from initial and final tumor volumes, with a median follow-up of 24.3 months (IQR 8.5–48.8 months). Hearing changes were based on pure tone averages, speech discrimination scores, and American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery hearing class. Primary outcomes were the loss of class A hearing and loss of serviceable hearing, estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and with associations estimated from Cox proportional hazards models and reported as hazard ratios.

RESULTS

Larger initial tumor size was associated with an increased risk of losing class A (HR 1.5 for a 1-cm3 increase; p = 0.047) and serviceable (HR 1.3; p < 0.001) hearing. Additionally, increasing volumetric tumor growth rate was associated with elevated risk of loss of class A hearing (HR 1.2 for increase of 100% per year; p = 0.031) and serviceable hearing (HR 1.2; p = 0.014). Hazard ratios increased linearly with increasing growth rates, without any evident threshold growth rate that resulted in a large, sudden increased risk of hearing loss.

CONCLUSIONS

Larger initial tumor size and faster tumor growth rates were associated with an elevated risk of loss of class A and serviceable hearing.

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Adomas Bunevicius, Stylianos Pikis, Douglas Kondziolka, Dev N. Patel, Kenneth Bernstein, Erik P. Sulman, Cheng-chia Lee, Huai-che Yang, Violaine Delabar, David Mathieu, Christopher P. Cifarelli, David E. Arsanious, Basem A. Dahshan, Joshua S. Weir, Herwin Speckter, Angel Mota, Manjul Tripathi, Narendra Kumar, Ronald E. Warnick, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Molecular profiles, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status, have important prognostic roles for glioblastoma patients. The authors studied the efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for glioblastoma patients with consideration of molecular tumor profiles.

METHODS

For this retrospective observational multiinstitutional study, the authors pooled consecutive patients who were treated using SRS for glioblastoma at eight institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation. They evaluated predictors of overall and progression-free survival with consideration of IDH mutation and MGMT methylation status.

RESULTS

Ninety-six patients (median age 56 years) underwent SRS (median dose 15 Gy and median treatment volume 5.53 cm3) at 147 tumor sites (range 1 to 7). The majority of patients underwent prior fractionated radiation therapy (92%) and temozolomide chemotherapy (98%). Most patients were treated at recurrence (85%), and boost SRS was used for 12% of patients. The majority of patients harbored IDH wild-type (82%) and MGMT-methylated (62%) tumors. Molecular data were unavailable for 33 patients. Median survival durations after SRS were similar between patients harboring IDH wild-type tumors and those with IDH mutant tumors (9.0 months vs 11 months, respectively), as well as between those with MGMT-methylated tumors and those with MGMT-unmethylated tumors (9.8 vs. 9.0 months, respectively). Prescription dose > 15 Gy (OR 0.367, 95% CI 0.190–0.709, p = 0.003) and treatment volume > 5 cm3 (OR 1.036, 95% CI 1.007–1.065, p = 0.014) predicted overall survival after controlling for age and IDH status. Treatment volume > 5 cm3 (OR 2.215, 95% CI 1.159–4.234, p = 0.02) and absence of gross-total resection (OR 0.403, 95% CI 0.208–0.781, p = 0.007) were associated with inferior local control of SRS-treated lesions in multivariate models. Nine patients experienced adverse radiation events after SRS, and 7 patients developed radiation necrosis at 59 to 395 days after SRS.

CONCLUSIONS

Post-SRS survival was similar as a function of IDH mutation and MGMT promoter methylation status, suggesting that molecular profiles of glioblastoma should be considered when selecting candidates for SRS. SRS prescription dose > 15 Gy and treatment volume ≤ 5 cm3 were associated with longer survival, independent of age and IDH status. Prior gross-total resection and smaller treatment volume were associated with superior local control.