Erica F. Bisson, Deshpande V. Rajakumar, and Praveen V. Mummaneni
Deshpande V. Rajakumar, Akshay Hari, Murali Krishna, Subhas Konar, and Ankit Sharma
Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).
During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1–3).
Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2–7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM).
There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow-up period.
Artificial cervical disc replacement in patients who have previously undergone cervical fusion surgery appears to be safe, with encouraging early clinical results based on this small case series, but more data from larger numbers of patients with long-term follow-up are needed. Arthroplasty may provide an additional tool for the management of post-fusion adjacent-level cervical disc disease in carefully selected patients.
Deshpande V. Rajakumar, Akshay Hari, Murali Krishna, Ankit Sharma, and Manjunatha Reddy
Different surgical approaches have been described for treatment of spondylolisthesis, including in situ fusions, reductions of various degrees, and inclusion of healthy adjacent segments into the fusion construct. To the authors’ knowledge, there are only sparse reports describing consistent complete reduction and monosegmental transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for spondylolisthesis using a minimally invasive technique. The authors assess the efficacy of this technique in the reduction of local deformity and correction of overall sagittal profile in single-level spondylolisthesis.
This cohort study consists of a total of 36 consecutive patients treated over a period of 6 years. Patients with varying grades of lumbar spondylolisthesis (29 Meyerding Grade II and 7 Meyerding Grade III) were treated with operative reduction via minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in which the “rocking” technique was used. The clinical outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for low-back pain/dysfunction. Meyerding grade, pelvic incidence (PI), lumbar lordosis (LL), disc space angle (DSA), pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS) were assessed to measure the radiological outcomes. These were reviewed for each patient for a minimum of 2 years.
At most recent follow-up, 94% of patients were pain free. There were 2 patients (6%) who had moderate pain (which corresponded to higher-grade of listhesis), but all showed an improvement in pain scores (p < 0.05). The mean VAS score improved from 6.5 (SD 1.5) preoperatively to 1.6 (SD 1.3) and the mean ODI score improved from 53.7 (SD 13.1) preoperatively to 22.5 (SD 15.5) at 2-year follow-up.
All radiological parameters improved following surgery. Most significant improvement was noted for LL, DSA, and SS. Both LL and SS were found to decrease, while DSA increased postoperatively. PI remained relatively unchanged, while PT showed a mild increase, which was not significant. Good fusion was achieved with implants in situ at 2-year follow-up. A 100% complete reduction of all grades of spondylolisthesis was achieved. The overall sagittal profile improved dramatically. No major perioperative complications were encountered.
Minimally invasive monosegmental TLIF for spondylolisthesis reduction using this rocking technique is effective in the treatment of various grades of spondylolisthesis. Consistent complete reduction of the slippage as well as excellent correction of overall sagittal profile can be achieved, and the need for including healthy adjacent segments in the fusion construct can be avoided.