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Ender Koktekir, Zafer Orkun Toktas, Askin Seker, Akin Akakin, Deniz Konya and Turker Kilic


Due to lack of construct stability of the current anterior cervical approaches, supplemental posterior cervical approaches are frequently employed. The use of an anterior-only approach with anterior transpedicular screws (ATPSs) has been proposed as a means of providing 3-column fixation. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation of cervical spine, to obtain the morphological measurements for technical prerequisites, and to evaluate the accuracy of the ATPS using fluoroscopy.


The study included both radiological and anatomical investigations. The radiological investigations were based on data from cervical spine CT scans performed in 65 patients. Technical prerequisites of ATPS were calculated using OsiriX for Mac OS. In the anatomical part of the study, 30 pedicles (C3–7) from 6 formalin-preserved cadavers were manually instrumented. Measurements obtained included pedicle width (PW), pedicle height (PH), pedicle transverse angle (PTA), distance of the entry point from the midline (DEPM), and distance of the entry point from the superior endplate (DEPSEP). The authors also analyzed screw position in the manually instrumented vertebrae.


The mean PW and PH values showed a tendency to increase from C-3 to C-7 in both males and females. The means were significantly larger for both PW and PH in males than in females at all levels (p = 0.001). The overall mean PTA value was significantly lower at C-7 (p < 0.0001). The mean value for the distance of entry point from the midline (DEPM) represented a point at the contralateral side of the pedicle for every level except C-7. The mean DEPSEP values showed significant differences between all levels (p < 0.0001). Seven of the 30 screws were identified as breaching the pedicle (23.3%); these screw malplacements were seen at C-3 (3 screws), C-4 (2 screws), and C-5 (2 screws).


The morphological measurements of this study demonstrated that ATPS fixation is feasible in selected cases. They indicate that ATPS insertion using a fluoroscopy-assisted pedicle axis view is safe at the C-6 and C-7 levels, but the results at the other levels did not prove the safety of this technique.

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Serdar Özgen, Nigar Baykan, I. Varlik Dogan, Deniz Konya and M. Necmettin Pamir

In this report the authors present a case of cauda equina syndrome that developed following induction of spinal anesthesia in a patient who had no apparent preexisting bleeding abnormality. An acute subdural hematoma caused the syndrome and was believed to have resulted from direct vascular trauma during administration of spinal anesthesia or from vascular trauma combined with thrombocytopenia in the postoperative period.

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Kaya Kiliç, Deniz Konya, Özlem Kurtkaya, Aydin Sav, M. Necmettin Pamir and Türker Kiliç


The authors studied the effect of Gamma Knife irradiation on angiogenesis induced by cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) tissues implanted in the corneas of rats.


Ten AVM specimens obtained from tissue resections performed at Marmara University between 1998 and 2004 were used. A uniform amount of tissue was implanted into the micropocket between the two epithelial layers of the cornea. Gamma Knife irradiation was applied with dose prescriptions of 15 or 30 Gy to one cornea at 100% iso-dose. Dosing was adjusted so that the implanted cornea of one eye received 1.5 Gy when 15 Gy was applied to the other cornea. Similarly, one cornea received 3 Gy when 30 Gy was applied to the other cornea. Angiogenic activity was graded daily by biomicroscopic observations. Forty-eight other rats were used for microvessel counting and vascularendothelial growth factor (VEGF) staining portions of the experiment. Micropieces of the specimens were again used for corneal implantation. Rats from each group were killed on Days 5, 10, 15, and 20, and four corneas from each group were examined.

Gamma Knife irradiation dose dependently decreased AVM-induced neovascularization in the rat cornea as determined by biomicroscopic grading of angiogenesis, microvessel count, and VEGF expression.


The results suggest that Gamma Knife irradiation inhibits angiogenesis induced by AVM tissue in the cornea angiogenesis model. The data are not directly related to understanding how Gamma Knife irradiation occludes existing AVM vasculature, but to understanding why properly treated AVMs do not recur and do not show neovascularization after Gamma Knife irradiation.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010