Deena M. Nasr, Waleed Brinjikji, Michelle J. Clarke, and Giuseppe Lanzino
Spinal epidural arteriovenous fistulas (SEDAVFs) constitute a rare but treatable cause of vascular myelopathy and are a different subtype from the more common Type I spinal dural AVFs. The purpose of this study was to review a consecutive series of SEDAVFs from a single institution and report on the clinical presentations, functional status, and treatment outcomes.
The authors identified all SEDAVFs treated at their institution from 2005 to 2015. SEDAVFs were defined as spinal AVFs in which the fistulous connection occurred in the epidural venous plexus. The clinical presentation, functional status, immediate treatment outcomes, and long-term neurological outcomes were analyzed.
Twenty-four patients with SEDAVFs were included in this study. The patients' mean age at presentation was 66.9 years. The most common presenting symptoms were pain and numbness (22 patients, 91.7%), followed by lower-extremity weakness (21 patients, 87.5%). The mean duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was 11.8 months. Eighteen patients (75.0%) were treated with endovascular therapy alone, 4 (16.7) with surgery, and 2 (8.3%) with a combination of techniques. There was 1 major treatment-related complication (4.2%). Fifteen patients (62.5%) had improvement in disability, and 12 patients (54.5%) had improvement in sensory symptoms.
SEDAVFs often present with lower-extremity motor dysfunction and sensory symptoms. With the availability of newer liquid embolic agents, these lesions can be effectively treated with endovascular techniques. Surgery is also effective at treating these lesions, especially in situations where endovascular embolization fails or is not safe and in patients presenting with mass effect from compressive varices.
Lorenzo Rinaldo, Deena M. Nasr, Kelly D. Flemming, Giuseppe Lanzino, and Waleed Brinjikji
Symptomatic nonsaccular vertebrobasilar aneurysms (NSVBAs) are associated with high rates of aneurysm-related death. Anecdotal evidence suggests that brainstem infarction may be a harbinger of aneurysm rupture. The authors aimed to investigate the association between brainstem infarction and subsequent NSVBA rupture.
The clinical records and radiographic imaging studies of patients presenting to the authors’ institution between 1996 and 2019 for evaluation and management of an NSVBA were retrospectively reviewed to determine the effect of perforating artery infarction on the natural history of NSVBAs. Kaplan-Meier curves for patients with and patients without perforator infarction were constructed, and predictors of aneurysm rupture were identified using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.
There were 98 patients with 591.3 person-years of follow-up who met the inclusion criteria for analysis. There were 20 patients who experienced perforator infarction during follow-up. Ten patients (10.2%) experienced aneurysm rupture during follow-up and 26 patients (26.5%) died due to aneurysm-related complications, with annual rates of rupture and aneurysm-related death of 1.7% and 4.4%, respectively. Five patients with a perforator infarction later experienced aneurysm rupture, with a median time between infarction and rupture of 3 months (range 0–35 months). On multivariate analysis, the presence of intraaneurysmal thrombus (risk ratio [RR] 4.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–14.44, p = 0.033) and perforator infarction (RR 6.37, 95% CI 1.07–37.95, p = 0.042) were independently associated with risk of aneurysm rupture.
NSVBAs continue to be extremely challenging clinical entities with a poor prognosis. These results suggest that brainstem infarction due to perforating artery occlusion may be a harbinger of near-term aneurysm rupture.