The authors report the history of the Tabulae Anatomicae of Bartolomeo Eustachio (ca. 1510–1574). In the tables, the anatomical illustrations were drawn inside a numerical frame, with pairs of numbers on the y- and x-axes to identify single anatomical details in the reference table. The measures and the references could be calculated using the graduated margins divided by 5 units for each the x-axis and y-axis. The Tabulae Anatomicae can be considered a precursor to modern anatomical reference systems that are the basis of studies on cerebral localization mainly used for stereotactic procedures.
Alessandro Dario, Giuseppe Ottavio Armocida, and Davide Locatelli
Marco Cenzato, Francesco DiMeco, Marco Fontanella, Davide Locatelli, and Franco Servadei
Alberto Campione, Gianluca Agresta, Davide Locatelli, and Fabio Pozzi
Epidural varicosis is a rare though well-known cause of cauda equina syndrome (CES). Although inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction is the most common finding in such cases, portal vein hypertension can lead to epidural venous plexus engorgement by means of lumbar portocaval shunt activation.
A 40-year-old woman presented with right-sided sciatica, which progressed to right foot drop and a 3-day history of vesical tenesmus and fecal retention. She was initially diagnosed with L4–5 lumbar disc protrusion. However, contrast-enhanced lumbar MRI scan showed the presence of epidural varices in the L3–S1 tract. Given the absence of vascular anomalies amenable to resection, etiological conservative treatment was addressed. Therefore, a complete diagnostic workup was performed and revealed deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and portal vein thrombosis. Oral anticoagulant therapy was initiated and prompt resolution of CES was observed. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of CES secondary to epidural varicosis in the setting of acute portal vein thrombosis and extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). In cases of epidural varicosis, conservative etiological treatment is the most appropriate choice as CES may be the epiphenomenon of underlying systemic pathophysiological processes.
Luigi Maria Cavallo, Diego Mazzatenta, Elena d’Avella, Domenico Catapano, Marco Maria Fontanella, Davide Locatelli, Davide Luglietto, Davide Milani, Domenico Solari, Marco Vindigni, Francesco Zenga, Gianluigi Zona, and Paolo Cappabianca
In the last 2 decades, the endoscopic endonasal approach in the treatment of clival chordomas has evolved to be a viable strategy to achieve maximal safe resection of this tumor. Here, the authors present a multicentric national study, intending to analyze the evolution of this approach over a 20-year time frame and its contribution in the treatment of clival chordomas.
Clival chordoma cases surgically treated between 1999 and 2018 at 10 Italian neurosurgical departments were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, radiological, and surgical findings, adjuvant therapy, and outcomes were evaluated and compared according to classification in the treatment eras from 1999 to 2008 and from 2009 to 2018.
One hundred eighty-two surgical procedures were reviewed, with an increase in case load since 2009. The endoscopic endonasal transclival approach (EETA) was performed in 151 of 182 cases (83.0%) and other approaches were performed in 31 cases (17%). There was an increment in the use of EETA, neuronavigation, and Doppler ultrasound after 2008. The overall postoperative complication rate was 14.3% (26 of 182 cases) consisting of 9 CSF leaks (4.9%), 7 intracranial hemorrhages (3.8%), 5 cases of meningitis (2.7%), and 5 cerebral ischemic injuries (2.7%). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 93 of 182 cases (51.1%). Extent of resection (EOR) improved in the second era of the study. Signs and/or symptoms at presentation worsened in 27 cases (14.8%), and the Katz Index worsened in 10 cases (5.5%). Previous treatment, dural involvement, EETA, and intraoperative Doppler ultrasound correlated with GTR. Patients received adjuvant proton beam radiation in 115 of 182 cases (63.2%), which was administered more in the latter era. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 62.3% and 73.5%, respectively. GTR, EETA, proton beam therapy, and the chondroid subtype correlated with a better survival rate. The mean follow-up was 62 months.
Through multicentric data collection, this study encompasses the largest series in the literature of clival chordomas surgically treated through an EETA. An increase in the use of this approach was found among Italian neurosurgical departments together with an improved extent of resection over time. The satisfactory rate of GTR was marked by low surgical morbidity and the preservation of patient quality of life. Surgical outcome was reinforced, in terms of PFS and OS, by the use of proton beam therapy, which was increasingly performed along the period of study.
Francesco Doglietto, Marika Vezzoli, Antonio Biroli, Giorgio Saraceno, Luca Zanin, Marta Pertichetti, Stefano Calza, Edoardo Agosti, Jahard Mijail Aliaga Arias, Roberto Assietti, Silvio Bellocchi, Claudio Bernucci, Simona Bistazzoni, Daniele Bongetta, Andrea Fanti, Antonio Fioravanti, Alessandro Fiorindi, Alberto Franzin, Davide Locatelli, Raffaelino Pugliese, Elena Roca, Giovanni Marco Sicuri, Roberto Stefini, Martina Venturini, Oscar Vivaldi, Costanza Zattra, Cesare Zoia, and Marco Maria Fontanella
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many countries into lockdown and has led to the postponement of nonurgent neurosurgical procedures. Although stress has been investigated during this pandemic, there are no reports on anxiety in neurosurgical patients undergoing nonurgent surgical procedures.
Neurosurgical patients admitted to hospitals in eastern Lombardy for nonurgent surgery after the lockdown prospectively completed a pre- and postoperative structured questionnaire. Recorded data included demographics, pathology, time on surgical waiting list, anxiety related to COVID-19, primary pathology and surgery, safety perception during hospital admission before and after surgery, and surgical outcomes. Anxiety was measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Descriptive statistics were computed on the different variables and data were stratified according to pathology (oncological vs nononcological). Three different models were used to investigate which variables had the greatest impact on anxiety, oncological patients, and safety perception, respectively. Because the variables (Xs) were of a different nature (qualitative and quantitative), mostly asymmetrical, and related to outcome (Y) by nonlinear relationships, a machine learning approach composed of three steps (1, random forest growing; 2, relative variable importance measure; and 3, partial dependence plots) was chosen.
One hundred twenty-three patients from 10 different hospitals were included in the study. None of the patients developed COVID-19 after surgery. State and trait anxiety were reported by 30.3% and 18.9% of patients, respectively. Higher values of state anxiety were documented in oncological compared to nononcological patients (46.7% vs 25%; p = 0.055). Anxiety was strongly associated with worry about primary pathology, surgery, disease worsening, and with stress during waiting time, as expected. Worry about positivity to SARS-CoV-2, however, was the strongest factor associated with anxiety, even though none of the patients were infected. Neuro-oncological disease was associated with state anxiety and with worry about surgery and COVID-19. Increased bed distance and availability of hand sanitizer were associated with a feeling of safety.
These data underline the importance of psychological support, especially for neuro-oncological patients, during a pandemic.