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Jefferson R. Wilson, David W. Cadotte and Michael G. Fehlings

Object

The object of this study was to identify, by means of a systematic review of the literature, the acute clinical predictors of neurological outcome, functional outcome, and survival after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).

Methods

A comprehensive computerized literature review search was performed, using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Selected articles were classified according to their level of evidence. Articles were then stratified into one of 3 domains depending on whether the primary focus was clinical prediction of 1) neurological outcome, 2) functional status, or 3) survival. For each study selected, clinical predictors related to patient demographic characteristics, injury mechanism, or neurological examination findings were extracted, and the individual relationship to outcome was defined.

Results

The initial search resulted in 376 citations. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria and study review, 51 relevant articles were identified and graded. Of these, 25 provided predictors for neurological outcome, 22 for functional outcome, and 15 for survival, with several of the articles providing information on more than one type of outcome. All of the included studies were designated as providing Class I, II, or III levels of evidence. The severity of neurological injury (as measured by admission Americal Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade, Frankel grade, or injury completeness), level of injury, and the presence of a zone of partial preservation were consistent predictors of neurological outcome. Severity of neurological injury, level of injury, reflex pattern, and age were consistent predictors of functional outcome. Finally, severity of neurological injury, level of injury, age, and the presence of multisystem trauma seen with higher-energy injury mechanisms were consistent predictors of survival.

Conclusions

On the basis on this review, the authors have identified a constellation of acute clinical features that may help to define an individual's profile for recovery and survival after SCI. This study will help to facilitate communication in the clinical realm and assist in classifying subsets of patients within future clinical studies.

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George M. Ghobrial, David W. Cadotte, Kim Williams Jr., Michael G. Fehlings and James S. Harrop

OBJECT

The use of intrawound vancomycin is rapidly being adopted for the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) in spinal surgery. At operative closure, the placement of vancomycin powder in the wound bed—in addition to standard infection prophylaxis—can provide high concentrations of antibiotics with minimal systemic absorption. However, despite its popularity, to date the majority of studies on intrawound vancomycin are retrospective, and there are no prior reports highlighting the risks of routine treatment.

METHODS

A MEDLINE search for pertinent literature was conducted for studies published between 1966 and May 2015 using the following MeSH search terms: “intrawound vancomycin,” “operative lumbar spine complications,” and “nonoperative lumbar spine complications.” This was supplemented with references and known literature on the topic.

RESULTS

An advanced MEDLINE search conducted on May 6, 2015, using the search string “intrawound vancomycin” found 22 results. After a review of all abstracts for relevance to intrawound vancomycin use in spinal surgery, 10 studies were reviewed in detail. Three meta-analyses were evaluated from the initial search, and 2 clinical studies were identified. After an analysis of all of the identified manuscripts, 3 additional studies were included for a total of 16 studies. Fourteen retrospective studies and 2 prospective studies were identified, resulting in a total of 9721 patients. A total of 6701 (68.9%) patients underwent treatment with intrawound vancomycin. The mean SSI rate among the control and vancomycin-treated patients was 7.47% and 1.36%, respectively. There were a total of 23 adverse events: nephropathy (1 patient), ototoxicity resulting in transient hearing loss (2 patients), systemic absorption resulting in supratherapeutic vancomycin exposure (1 patient), and culture-negative seroma formation (19 patients). The overall adverse event rate for the total number of treated patients was 0.3%.

CONCLUSIONS

Intrawound vancomycin use appears to be safe and effective for reducing postoperative SSIs with a low rate of morbidity. Study disparities and limitations in size, patient populations, designs, and outcomes measures contribute significant bias that could not be fully rectified by this systematic review. Moreover, care should be exercised in the use of intrawound vancomycin due to the lack of well-designed, prospective studies that evaluate the efficacy of vancomycin and include the appropriate systems to capture drug-related complications.

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David W. Cadotte, Shobhan Vachhrajani and Farhad Pirouzmand

Object

This study documents the epidemiology of head injury over the course of 22 years in the largest Level I adult trauma center in Canada. This information defines the current state, changing pattern, and relative distribution of demographic factors in a defined group of trauma patients. It will aid in hypothesis generation to direct etiological research, administrative resource allocation, and preventative strategies.

Methods

Data on all the trauma patients treated at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (SHSC) from 1986 to 2007 were collected in a consecutive, prospective fashion. The authors reviewed these data from the Sunnybrook Trauma Registry Database in a retrospective fashion. The aggregate data on head injury included demographic data, cause of injury, and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The collected data were analyzed using univariate techniques to depict the trend of variables over years. The authors used the length of stay (LOS) and number of deaths per year (case fatality rate) as crude measures of outcome.

Results

A total of 16,678 patients were treated through the Level I trauma center at SHSC from January 1986 to December 2007. Of these, 9315 patients met the inclusion criteria (ISS > 12, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score > 0). The median age of all trauma patients was 36 years, and 69.6% were male. The median ISS of the head-injury patients was 27. The median age of this group of patients increased by 12 years over the study period. Motorized vehicle accidents accounted for the greatest number of head injuries (60.3%) although the relative percentage decreased over the study period. The median transfer time of patients sustaining a head injury was 2.58 hours, and there was an approximately 45 minute improvement over the 22-year study period. The median LOS in our center decreased from 19 to 10 days over the study period. The average case fatality rate was 17.4% over the study period. In multivariate analysis, more severe injuries were associated with increased LOS as was increasing time from injury to hospital presentation. Age and injury severity were independently predictive of mortality.

Conclusions

These data will provide useful information to guide future studies on the changing patterns of head injury, possible mechanisms of injury, and efficient resource allocation for management of this condition.

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David W. Cadotte, Patrick W. Stroman, David Mikulis and Michael G. Fehlings

Object

Since the first published report of spinal functional MRI (fMRI) in humans in 1996, this body of literature has grown substantially. In the present article, the authors systematically review all spinal fMRI studies conducted in healthy individuals with a focus on the different motor and sensory paradigms used and the results acquired.

Methods

The authors conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE for literature published from 1990 through November 2011 reporting on stimulation paradigms used to assess spinal fMRI scans in healthy individuals.

Results

They identified 19 peer-reviewed studies from 1996 to the present in which a combination of different spinal fMRI methods were used to investigate the spinal cord in healthy individuals. Eight of the studies used a motor stimulation paradigm, 10 used a sensory stimulation paradigm, and 1 compared motor and sensory stimulation paradigms.

Conclusions

Despite differences in the results of various studies, even when similar stimulation paradigms were used, this body of literature underscores that spinal fMRI signals can be obtained from the human spinal cord. The authors intend this review to serve as an introduction to spinal fMRI research and what it may offer the field of spinal cord injury research.

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Editorial

Occipital cervical fusion: an evolution of techniques

Michael G. Fehlings and David W. Cadotte