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  • Author or Editor: David T. Gilbertson x
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Edward G. Shaw, Catherine Daumas-Duport, Bernd W. Scheithauer, David T. Gilbertson, Judith R. O'Fallon, John D. Earle, Edward R. Laws Jr. and Haruo Okazaki

✓ The records of 167 patients with grade 1 or 2 supratentorial pilocytic astrocytomas (41 patients), ordinary astrocytomas (91 patients), or mixed oligoastrocytomas (35 patients) diagnosed between 1960 and 1982 are retrospectively reviewed. The extent of surgical tumor removal was gross total or radical subtotal in 33 patients (20%) and subtotal or biopsy only in the remaining 134 patients (80%). Postoperative radiation therapy was given to 139 (83%) of the 167 patients, with a median dose of 5000 cGy (range 600 to 6500 cGy).

Multivariate analysis revealed that a pilocytic histology was the most significant prognostic variable associated with a good survival. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were, respectively, 85% and 79% for the 41 patients with pilocytic astrocytomas compared to 51% and 23% for the 126 patients with ordinary astrocytomas or mixed oligoastrocytomas. Postoperative irradiation did not appear to be associated with improved survival times in the patients with pilocytic astrocytomas; however, in the 126 patients with ordinary astrocytomas or mixed oligoastrocytomas, those who received “high-dose” radiation (≥ 5300 cGy) had significantly better survival times than those who received “low-dose” radiation (< 5300 cGy) or surgery alone. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were, respectively, 68% and 39% for the 35 patients receiving high-dose radiation, 47% and 21% for the 67 receiving low-dose radiation, and 32% and 11% for the 19 treated with surgery alone.

The survival rate was poor for the 23 patients with ordinary astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas who underwent gross total or radical subtotal tumor removal (14 of whom were also irradiated): 52% at 5 years and 21% at 10 years, with 19 of 23 patients developing tumor progression and dying 1 to 12 years postoperatively. In contrast, all 10 patients with pilocytic astrocytomas who had gross total or radical subtotal tumor removal alone were long-term survivors, with follow-up periods of about 4 to 25 years.

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Radek Kolecki, Vikalpa Dammavalam, Abdullah Bin Zahid, Molly Hubbard, Osamah Choudhry, Marleen Reyes, ByoungJun Han, Tom Wang, Paraskevi Vivian Papas, Aylin Adem, Emily North, David T. Gilbertson, Douglas Kondziolka, Jason H. Huang, Paul P. Huang and Uzma Samadani

OBJECTIVE

The precise threshold differentiating normal and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is variable among individuals. In the context of several pathophysiological conditions, elevated ICP leads to abnormalities in global cerebral functioning and impacts the function of cranial nerves (CNs), either or both of which may contribute to ocular dysmotility. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of elevated ICP on eye-tracking performed while patients were watching a short film clip.

METHODS

Awake patients requiring placement of an ICP monitor for clinical purposes underwent eye tracking while watching a 220-second continuously playing video moving around the perimeter of a viewing monitor. Pupil position was recorded at 500 Hz and metrics associated with each eye individually and both eyes together were calculated. Linear regression with generalized estimating equations was performed to test the association of eye-tracking metrics with changes in ICP.

RESULTS

Eye tracking was performed at ICP levels ranging from −3 to 30 mm Hg in 23 patients (12 women, 11 men, mean age 46.8 years) on 55 separate occasions. Eye-tracking measures correlating with CN function linearly decreased with increasing ICP (p < 0.001). Measures for CN VI were most prominently affected. The area under the curve (AUC) for eye-tracking metrics to discriminate between ICP < 12 and ≥ 12 mm Hg was 0.798. To discriminate an ICP < 15 from ≥ 15 mm Hg the AUC was 0.833, and to discriminate ICP < 20 from ≥ 20 mm Hg the AUC was 0.889.

CONCLUSIONS

Increasingly elevated ICP was associated with increasingly abnormal eye tracking detected while patients were watching a short film clip. These results suggest that eye tracking may be used as a noninvasive, automatable means to quantitate the physiological impact of elevated ICP, which has clinical application for assessment of shunt malfunction, pseudotumor cerebri, concussion, and prevention of second-impact syndrome.